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TM14: Advanced Railroad Grade Crossing

This service package manages highway traffic at highway-rail intersections (HRIs) where operational requirements demand advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are greater than 80 miles per hour). This service package includes all capabilities from the Standard Railroad Grade Crossing service package and augments these with additional safety features to mitigate the risks associated with higher rail speeds and leverage Connected Vehicle technologies. The active warning systems supported by this service package include positive barrier systems that preclude entrance into the intersection when the barriers are activated. Like the Standard package, the HRI equipment is activated on notification by wayside interface equipment which detects, or communicates with the approaching train. In this service package, the wayside equipment provides additional information about the arriving train so that the train's direction of travel, estimated time of arrival, and estimated duration of closure may be derived. This service package will alert and/or warn drivers who are approaching an at-grade railroad crossing if they are on a crash-imminent trajectory to collide with a crossing or approaching train. This enhanced information may be conveyed to the driver prior to, or in context with, warning system activation. This service package also includes additional detection capabilities that enable it to detect an entrapped or otherwise immobilized vehicle within the HRI and provide an immediate notification to highway and railroad officials.

Relevant Regions: Australia, Canada, European Union, and United States

Enterprise

Development Stage Roles and Relationships

Installation Stage Roles and Relationships

Operations Stage Roles and Relationships
(hide)

Source Destination Role/Relationship
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Manager Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Manages
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owns
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Personal Information Device Owner Expectation of Information Provision
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Traffic Management Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Vehicle OBE Owner Expectation of Information Provision
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Supplier Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Warranty
Cyclist Personal Information Device Operates
ITS Roadway Equipment Manager ITS Roadway Equipment Manages
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owns
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Traffic Management Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Supplier ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Warranty
Pedestrian Personal Information Device Operates
Personal Information Device Manager Cyclist System Usage Agreement
Personal Information Device Manager Pedestrian System Usage Agreement
Personal Information Device Manager Personal Information Device Manages
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Owns
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Manager Operations Agreement
Personal Information Device Supplier Personal Information Device Owner Warranty
Rail Operations Center Manager Rail Operations Center Manages
Rail Operations Center Owner Rail Operations Center Owns
Rail Operations Center Owner Rail Operations Center Manager Operations Agreement
Rail Operations Center Supplier Rail Operations Center Owner Warranty
Traffic Management Center Manager Traffic Management Center Manages
Traffic Management Center Owner Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Traffic Management Center Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Traffic Management Center Owner Rail Operations Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owns
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Traffic Management Center Supplier Traffic Management Center Owner Warranty
Vehicle OBE Manager Vehicle OBE Manages
Vehicle OBE Owner Vehicle OBE Owns
Vehicle OBE Owner Vehicle OBE Manager Operations Agreement
Vehicle OBE Supplier Vehicle OBE Owner Warranty
Wayside Equipment Manager Wayside Equipment Manages
Wayside Equipment Owner Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
Wayside Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
Wayside Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Owns
Wayside Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
Wayside Equipment Supplier Wayside Equipment Owner Warranty

Maintenance Stage Roles and Relationships

Functional

This service package includes the following Functional View PSpecs:

Physical Object Functional Object PSpec Number PSpec Name
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment RSE Rail Crossing Warning 1.1.1.6 Collect Vehicle Roadside Safety Data
1.1.2.6 Process Collected Vehicle Safety Data
1.2.7.15 Process Intersection Safety Data
1.2.7.4 Process In-vehicle Signage Data
1.2.7.7 Process Vehicle Safety and Environmental Data for Output
ITS Roadway Equipment Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 1.2.7.1 Process Indicator Output Data for Roads
1.6.1.1 Detect Roadway Events
1.6.1.2.4 Provide HSR Device Controls
1.6.1.4.1 Generate Alerts and Advisories
1.6.1.4.3 Report Alerts and Advisories
1.6.1.4.4 Report HRI Status on Approach
1.6.1.5 Detect HRI Hazards
1.6.1.6.1 Close HRI on Detection
1.6.1.6.2 Detect Imminent Vehicle/Train Collision
1.6.1.7.1 Control Traffic Volume at Active HRI
1.6.1.7.2 Close HRI on Command
1.6.3.1 Interact with Wayside Systems
1.6.3.2 Advise and Protect Train Crews
1.6.3.3 Provide ATS Alerts
1.6.5.1 Provide Interactive Interface
Personal Information Device Personal Pedestrian Safety 6.8.1.3 Process Personal Portable Device Location Data
6.8.1.4 Update Traveler Navigable Map Database
6.8.2.3 Monitor Pedestrian Safety Status
6.8.2.4 Provide Pedestrian Personal Interface
6.8.3.3 Provide Traveler Personal Interface
6.8.3.6 Provide Personal Safety Messages
Traffic Management Center TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management 1.2.4.4 Output Roadway Information Data
1.2.8 Collect Traffic Field Equipment Fault Data
1.6.2.1 Exchange Data with Rail Operations
1.6.2.2 Manage Alerts and Advisories
1.6.2.3 Manage Rail Traffic Control Data
1.6.4.1 Manage HRI Closures
1.6.4.2 Exchange Data with Traffic Management
Vehicle OBE Vehicle Rail Crossing Warning 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data
3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data
6.7.1.3 Process Vehicle Location Data
6.7.1.4 Update Vehicle Navigable Map Database
6.7.3.3 Provide Driver Information Interface

Physical

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Includes Physical Objects:

Physical Object Class Description
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Field 'Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment' (CV RSE) represents the Connected Vehicle roadside devices that are used to send messages to, and receive messages from, nearby vehicles using Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) or other alternative wireless communications technologies. Communications with adjacent field equipment and back office centers that monitor and control the RSE are also supported. This device operates from a fixed position and may be permanently deployed or a portable device that is located temporarily in the vicinity of a traffic incident, road construction, or a special event. It includes a processor, data storage, and communications capabilities that support secure communications with passing vehicles, other field equipment, and centers.
Cyclist Personal 'Cyclist' participates in ITS services that support safe, shared use of the transportation network by motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. Representing those using non-motorized travel modes, and in particular bicyclists that sometimes share motor vehicle lanes, cyclists provide input (e.g. a call signal requesting right of way at an intersection) and may be detected by ITS services to improve safety.
Driver Vehicle The 'Driver' represents the person that operates a vehicle on the roadway. Included are operators of private, transit, commercial, and emergency vehicles where the interactions are not particular to the type of vehicle (e.g., interactions supporting vehicle safety applications). The Driver originates driver requests and receives driver information that reflects the interactions which might be useful to all drivers, regardless of vehicle classification. Information and interactions which are unique to drivers of a specific vehicle type (e.g., fleet interactions with transit, commercial, or emergency vehicle drivers) are covered by separate objects.
ITS Roadway Equipment Field 'ITS Roadway Equipment' represents the ITS equipment that is distributed on and along the roadway that monitors and controls traffic and monitors and manages the roadway. This physical object includes traffic detectors, environmental sensors, traffic signals, highway advisory radios, dynamic message signs, CCTV cameras and video image processing systems, grade crossing warning systems, and ramp metering systems. Lane management systems and barrier systems that control access to transportation infrastructure such as roadways, bridges and tunnels are also included. This object also provides environmental monitoring including sensors that measure road conditions, surface weather, and vehicle emissions. Work zone systems including work zone surveillance, traffic control, driver warning, and work crew safety systems are also included.
Pedestrian Personal 'Pedestrian' participates in ITS services that support safe, shared use of the transportation network by motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. Representing those using non-motorized travel modes, pedestrians provide input (e.g. a call signal requesting right of way at an intersection) and may be detected by ITS services to improve safety. This object also includes travelers in special motorized conveyances, which travel at slow speed through portions of the transportation network and interact with ITS systems in a manner similar to that of Pedestrians.
Personal Information Device Personal The 'Personal Information Device' provides the capability for travelers to receive formatted traveler information wherever they are. Capabilities include traveler information, trip planning, and route guidance. Frequently a smart phone, the Personal Information Device provides travelers with the capability to receive route planning and other personally focused transportation services from the infrastructure in the field, at home, at work, or while en-route. Personal Information Devices may operate independently or may be linked with connected vehicle on-board equipment.
Rail Operations Center Center 'Rail Operations Center' represents the (usually) centralized control point for a substantial segment of a freight railroad's operations and maintenance activities. It is roughly the railroad equivalent to a highway Traffic Management Center. It is the source and destination of information that can be used to coordinate rail and highway traffic management and maintenance operations. It is also the source and destination for incident, incident response, disaster, or evacuation information that is exchanged with an Emergency Management Center. The use of a single object for multiple sources and destination for information exchange with railroads implies the need for a single, consistent interface between a given railroad's operations and maintenance activities and ITS.
Traffic Management Center Center The 'Traffic Management Center' monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centers that manage a broad range of transportation facilities including freeway systems, rural and suburban highway systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems. It communicates with ITS Roadway Equipment and Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment (RSE) to monitor and manage traffic flow and monitor the condition of the roadway, surrounding environmental conditions, and field equipment status. It manages traffic and transportation resources to support allied agencies in responding to, and recovering from, incidents ranging from minor traffic incidents through major disasters.
Vehicle OBE Vehicle The Vehicle On-Board Equipment (OBE) provides the vehicle-based sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions that support efficient, safe, and convenient travel. The Vehicle OBE includes general capabilities that apply to passenger cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Many of these capabilities (e.g., see the Vehicle Safety service packages) apply to all vehicle types including personal vehicles, commercial vehicles, emergency vehicles, transit vehicles, and maintenance vehicles. From this perspective, the Vehicle OBE includes the common interfaces and functions that apply to all motorized vehicles. The radio(s) supporting V2V and V2I communications are a key component of the Vehicle OBE. Both one-way and two-way communications options support a spectrum of information services from basic broadcast to advanced personalized information services. Route guidance capabilities assist in formulation of an optimal route and step by step guidance along the travel route. Advanced sensors, processors, enhanced driver interfaces, and actuators complement the driver information services so that, in addition to making informed mode and route selections, the driver travels these routes in a safer and more consistent manner. This physical object supports all six levels of driving automation as defined in SAE J3016. Initial collision avoidance functions provide 'vigilant co-pilot' driver warning capabilities. More advanced functions assume limited control of the vehicle to maintain lane position and safe headways. In the most advanced implementations, this Physical Object supports full automation of all aspects of the driving task, aided by communications with other vehicles in the vicinity and in coordination with supporting infrastructure subsystems.
Wayside Equipment Field 'Wayside Equipment' represents train interface equipment (usually) maintained and operated by the railroad and (usually) physically located at or near a grade crossing. It is a source and destination for information for, or about, approaching trains and their crews (e.g. the time at which the train will arrive and the time it will take to clear a crossing, crossing status or warnings, etc.). Generally one wayside equipment interface would be associated with one highway rail intersection. However, multiple crossings may be controlled using information based on data from one wayside equipment interface.

Includes Functional Objects:

Functional Object Description Physical Object
Personal Pedestrian Safety 'Personal Pedestrian Safety' improves pedestrian, cyclist, and other non-motorized user safety by providing personal location information to the infrastructure that can be used to avoid collisions involving non-motorized travelers. It may also alert the non-motorized user of unsafe conditions, augmenting or extending information provided by signals and signs. The information provided and the user interface delivery mechanism (visual, audible, or haptic) can also be tailored to the needs of the user that is carrying or wearing the device that hosts the application. Personal Information Device
Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 'Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing' manages highway traffic at highway-rail intersections (HRIs) where operational requirements demand advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are greater than 80 miles per hour). The active warning systems supported by this application include positive barrier systems which preclude entrance into the intersection when the barriers are activated. This application is activated on notification by wayside interface equipment which detects, or communicates with the approaching train. In this application, additional information about the arriving train is also provided by the wayside interface equipment so that the train's direction of travel, its estimated time of arrival, and the estimated duration of closure may be derived. This enhanced information may be conveyed to the driver prior to, or in context with, warning system activation. This application also includes detection capabilities which enable it to detect an entrapped or otherwise immobilized vehicle on the grade crossing and provide an immediate notification to the wayside interface equipment and traffic management. ITS Roadway Equipment
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 'RSE Rail Crossing Warning' is a connected vehicle application that improves safety at rail crossings. It communicates with wayside equipment that detects or communicates with approaching trains. It provides rail crossing warnings and train arrival information to approaching vehicles and monitors connected vehicles that may intrude on the crossing. Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment
TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management 'TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management' monitors and controls rail crossing traffic control equipment at advanced crossings that provide additional information on approaching trains, detect and report obstructions on the grade crossing, and communicate directly with equipped vehicles approaching the crossing. It remotely monitors and reports the status of the rail crossing equipment and sends control plan updates to the equipment. It also provides enhanced coordination between rail operations and traffic management centers that supports forecast of closure times and durations that may be applied to advanced traffic control strategies or delivered as enhanced traveler information. Traffic Management Center
Vehicle Rail Crossing Warning 'Vehicle Rail Crossing Warning ' uses I2V communications to receive alerts of trains entering HRIs and to provide warnings to drivers regarding the trains. The warning can include second train warning (meaning the HRI gates are about to lower, or remain lowered due to the arrival of a second train). The application can also provide vehicle infringement warnings by using the alert information along with vehicle trajectory information to determine that the vehicle will infringe upon a crossing that is (or will be) occupied by a train. Vehicle OBE

Includes Information Flows:

Information Flow Description
arriving train information Information for a train approaching a highway-rail intersection that may include direction and allow calculation of approximate arrival time and closure duration.
crossing call Non-motorized user request to cross the roadway. This is an overt request from a pedestrian, cyclist, or other vulnerable road user. This overt request may be a physical button push or hovering or gesturing in the vicinity of the button that supports contactless activation.
crossing permission Information provided to guide and warn pedestrians at crossings including crossing request acknowledgment, current crossing permission, crossing time remaining, and real-time warnings of safety threats.
driver information Regulatory, warning, and guidance information provided to the driver while en route to support safe and efficient vehicle operation.
driver updates Information provided to the driver including visual displays, audible information and warnings, and haptic feedback. The updates inform the driver about current conditions, potential hazards, and the current status of vehicle on-board equipment.
intersection infringement info Vehicle path information sent by a vehicle that is performing an unpermitted movement at an intersection such as a stop sign violation or running a red light. This also includes information about possible conflicts with other road users in the vehicle's path, including a range of uncontrolled intersection scenarios that could be covered by this flow. This flow does not include permanent ids; only temporary ones that allow monitoring of the vehicle as it moves across the intersection.
personal location The current location (latitude, longitude, and elevation) reported by the personal information device
personal updates Personal information, alerts, and warnings provided to pedestrians, work crew members, and other individuals in a mixed use area. This includes visual, audio, and haptic outputs that may be customized to support individual needs.
rail crossing advisories Notification of Highway-Rail Intersection equipment failure, intersection blockage, or other condition requiring attention, and maintenance activities at or near highway rail intersections.
rail crossing application info Rail crossing and device configuration data and warning parameters and thresholds. This flow also supports remote control of the application so the application can be taken offline, reset, or restarted.
rail crossing application status Rail crossing application status reported by the RSE. This includes current operational state and status of the RSE and a record of rail crossing events and alerts and warnings issued.
rail crossing blockage notification Notification that a highway-rail intersection is obstructed and supporting information.
rail crossing control data Data required for HRI information transmitted at railroad grade crossings and within railroad operations.
rail crossing operational status Status of the highway-rail grade crossing equipment including both the current state or mode of operation and the current equipment condition.
rail crossing request A request for highway-rail intersection status or a specific control request intended to modify HRI operation.
rail crossing status Status of the highway-rail intersection equipment including both the current state or mode of operation and the current equipment condition.
rail crossing warning A warning of a train approaching or already in a highway rail intersection.
track status Current status of the wayside equipment and notification of an arriving train.
vehicle location and motion Data describing the vehicle's location in three dimensions, heading, speed, acceleration, braking status, and size.

Goals and Objectives

Associated Planning Factors and Goals

Planning Factor Goal
B. Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; Achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads

Associated Objective Categories

Objective Category
Safety: Vehicle Crashes and Fatalities

Associated Objectives and Performance Measures

Objective Performance Measure
Reduce crashes at railroad crossings Number of crashes and fatalities at railroad crossings
Reduce crashes due to driver errors and limitations Number of crashes and fatalities related to driver inattention and distraction
Reduce crashes due to driver errors and limitations Number of crashes and fatalities related to driving while intoxicated
Reduce the number of pedestrian fatalities by X percent by year Y. Number of pedestrian fatalities
Reduce the number of speeding-related fatalities by X percent by year Y. Number of speeding-related fatalities
Reduce the rate fatalities in the region by X percent by year Y. Rate of fatalities (rate per vehicle miles travelled (VMT))
Reduce the rate of severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Rate of serious injuries (rate per VMT)
Reduce the total number of crashes in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes involving bicycles.
Reduce the total number of crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes involving pedestrians.
Reduce the total number of fatalities and severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Total fatalities per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of fatalities and severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Total severe injuries per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of fatalities in the region by X percent by year Y. Number of fatalities
Reduce the total number of severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Number of serious injuries


 
Since the mapping between objectives and service packages is not always straight-forward and often situation-dependent, these mappings should only be used as a starting point. Users should do their own analysis to identify the best service packages for their region.

Needs and Requirements

Need Functional Object Requirement
01 Traffic Operations need to be able to warn drivers of crossing closures or potential crash-imminent situations with a crossing or oncoming train in time for the driver to take appropriate action. Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 02 The field element shall determine whether the highway-rail intersection (HRI) is blocked by traffic in the roadway or some other obstruction.
08 The field element shall control the dynamic message signs (DMS) in the vicinity of an advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) to advise drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians of approaching trains.
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 01 The field element shall identify a train approaching or already in a highway rail intersection and activate warning signs to approaching motorists.
08 The field element shall receive commands from the controlling center that activate warning signs to approaching vehicles, pedestrians and non motorist vehicles.
09 The field element shall warn drivers of crossing closures due to oncoming trains.
11 The field element shall warn the driver of a potential crash at a railroad grade crossing.
12 The field element shall calculate whether the vehicle may approach the railroad intersection while a train is present in the intersection.
Vehicle Rail Crossing Warning 01 Vehicle shall receive alerts of trains entering HRIs and provide warnings to drivers regarding the trains.
02 Traffic Operations need to be able to modify traffic signal timing in order to allow safe movement of vehicles away or towards an advanced highway rail intersection when a train is approaching. Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 07 The field element shall collect pedestrian images and pedestrian sensor data at advanced rail crossings and respond to pedestrian crossing requests via display, audio signal, or other manner.
10 The field element shall support the integrated control of adjacent traffic signals to clear an area in advance of an approaching train and to manage traffic around the advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) .
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 10 The field element shall acquire railroad crossing intersection geometry information.
TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management 02 The center shall accept collect highway-rail intersection (HRI) advisory or alert data from rail operations centers.
03 The center shall collect highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment operational status and compare against the control information sent by the center.
04 The center shall provide the highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment operational status to rail operations centers.
05 The center shall collect incident information related to a highway-rail intersection (HRI), such as intersection blockages or crashes or equipment malfunctions.
06 The center shall implement control plans to coordinate signalized intersections around highway-rail intersections (HRI), under control of center personnel, based on data from sensors and surveillance monitoring traffic conditions, incidents, equipment faults, pedestrian crossings, etc.
03 Traffic Operations need to be able to know when an approaching or crossing train(s) will cross or is crossing the at-grade crossing. Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 06 The field element shall receive track status and arriving train information from the rail wayside equipment that can be passed on to the traffic management center. This may include the current status of the tracks and when a train is expected and/or how long the crossing will be closed.
09 The field element shall close the highway-rail intersection (HRI) when a train is approaching with enough time for traffic to safely clear the crossing using gates, lights/signs, barriers, and traffic control signals.
TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management 07 The center shall accept train schedules, maintenance schedules, and any other forecast events that will result in highway-rail intersection (HRI) closures data from rail operations centers.
04 Traffic Operations need to be able to alert and/or warn drivers who are approaching an at-grade railroad crossing if they are on a crash-imminent trajectory to collide with a crossing or approaching train. This enhanced information may be conveyed to the driver prior to, or in context with, warning system activation Personal Pedestrian Safety 02 The personal information device shall receive rail crossing warning information.
Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 08 The field element shall control the dynamic message signs (DMS) in the vicinity of an advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) to advise drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians of approaching trains.
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 02 The field element shall autonomously identify a train is approaching or already in the highway rail intersection and activate warning signs to approaching motorists.
04 The field element shall provide train arrival information to approaching vehicles.
Vehicle Rail Crossing Warning 01 Vehicle shall receive alerts of trains entering HRIs and provide warnings to drivers regarding the trains.
05 Traffic Operations need to be able to have detection capabilities that enable it to detect an entrapped or otherwise immobilized vehicle within the HRI and provide an immediate notification to highway and railroad officials. Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 03 The field element shall notify the traffic management center and the rail wayside equipment of any intersection blockages, including trapped vehicles or other obstructions.
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 05 The field element shall monitor connected vehicles that may intrude on the crossing.
06 Traffic Operations need to be able to calculate an appropriate deceleration required to stop at the intersection given a collected set of data elements: road geometry, environmental road conditions, vehicle configuration data, and available telematics. Personal Pedestrian Safety 01 The personal information device shall provide the current location (latitude, longitude, and elevation) of the non-motorized travelers.
Roadway Advanced Rail Crossing 01 The field element shall collect and process, traffic sensor data in the vicinity of an advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI).
04 The field element shall monitor the status of the advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment, including both the current state and mode of operation and the current equipment condition, to be forwarded on to the traffic management center.
05 The field element shall monitor the status of the advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment, including both the current state and mode of operation and the current equipment condition, to be forwarded on to the rail wayside equipment.
11 The field element shall forward rail traffic advisories received from the Wayside Equipment at an advanced highway-rail intersection (HRI) to the traffic management center.
12 The field element shall provide approaching train advisories using field-vehicle communications to vehicles approaching the grade crossing.
RSE Rail Crossing Warning 03 The field element shall provide collected vehicle location information to the controlling center.
06 The field element shall provide collected pedestrians and other non motorist location information to the controlling center.
07 The field element shall collect the current status of the wayside equipment and notification of an arriving train.
TMC Advanced Rail Crossing Management 01 The center shall remotely control highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment located in the field.

Related Sources

Document Name Version Publication Date
Connected Vehicle Safety Applications for Highway Rail Intersections (HRI) ConOps Draft 9/21/2012
ITS User Services Document 1/1/2005
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Safety Applications Concept of Operation Document Draft 8/10/2012
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Safety Applications System Requirements Document Final 3/8/2013
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Rail Crossing Violation Warning Concept of Operations Draft 3/11/2015
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Rail Crossing Violation Warning System Requirements Specification Draft 3/11/2015


Security

In order to participate in this service package, each physical object should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Physical Object Security
Physical Object Confidentiality Integrity Availability Security Class
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Moderate High High Class 5
ITS Roadway Equipment Moderate High High Class 5
Personal Information Device Not Applicable High High Class 5
Rail Operations Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Traffic Management Center Moderate High High Class 5
Vehicle OBE Low High Moderate Class 3
Wayside Equipment Moderate High High Class 5



In order to participate in this service package, each information flow triple should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Information Flow Security
Source Destination Information Flow Confidentiality Integrity Availability
Basis Basis Basis
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment ITS Roadway Equipment intersection infringement info Low High Moderate
This data is also transmitted to those in the local vicinity via broadcast. This message is an indication of a potential hazard and should not be easy to forge. False messages here may lead to confusion that causes a traffic accident. This message is an indication of a potential hazard. If it isn't received it increases the risk to other road users. If a vehicle is infringing on an intersection, it must report this.
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Personal Information Device arriving train information Not Applicable High High
Trains arriving should be visible, viewable and certainly not concealed. This flow forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. This flow forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. Since this flow can lead to other actions with other effects, HIGH is justifiable.
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Personal Information Device rail crossing warning Not Applicable High Moderate
This is directly observable data. While there are other mechanisms for receiving this information, this data flow needs to be accurate lest a catastrophic mistake be made. While the data is critically important, there are other mechanisms for noting an approaching train (crossing gates, the train itself).
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Traffic Management Center rail crossing application status Moderate Moderate Low
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or cause the appearance of excessive traffic violations, leading to further unnecessary investigation. A delay in reporting this may cause a delay in necessary maintenance, but (a) this is not time-critical and (b) there are other channels for reporting malfunctioning. Additionally, there is a message received notification, which means that RSE can ensure that all intersection safety issues are delivered.
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Vehicle OBE arriving train information Not Applicable High Moderate
Trains arriving should be visible, viewable and certainly not concealed. While there are other mechanisms for receiving this information, this data flow needs to be accurate lest a catastrophic mistake be made. While the data is critically important, there are other mechanisms for noting an approaching train (crossing gates, the train itself).
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Vehicle OBE rail crossing warning Not Applicable High Moderate
This is directly observable data. While there are other mechanisms for receiving this information, this data flow needs to be accurate lest a catastrophic mistake be made. While the data is critically important, there are other mechanisms for noting an approaching train (crossing gates, the train itself).
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Wayside Equipment rail crossing blockage notification Moderate High High
Contains information that may be predictive of a serious traffic/rail incident. For privacy purposes, this should probably not be advertised. Data predictive of potentially catastrophic incident needs to be correct so that appropriate actions are taken. This is a high priority to the vehicle blocking the HRI. Impact is not broad, but very severe. Hard to justify a MODERATE given the consequences.
Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment Wayside Equipment rail crossing operational status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Cyclist ITS Roadway Equipment crossing call Not Applicable High Low
The "Not Applicable" group includes information flows that do not actually carry information; for example, flows that represent the physical environment. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, and should ensure that they are detected by pedestrian detection systems, they may not always be detected and be led to cross at unsafe times if the ITS RE obtains incorrect information. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment arriving train information Not Applicable High High
Trains arriving should be visible, viewable and certainly not concealed. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. Since this flow can lead to other actions with other effects, HIGH is justifiable.
ITS Roadway Equipment Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment track status Low High High
Track status is typically physically viewable information. While this can be corroborated visually, the RSE may rely on this information to make safety-related decisions with significant consequences, so the data must be of high quality and readily available. While this can be corroborated visually, the RSE may rely on this information to make safety-related decisions with significant consequences, so the data must be of high quality and readily available.
ITS Roadway Equipment Cyclist crossing permission Not Applicable High Low
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, they may react instinctively to incorrect information and be led to cross at unsafe times if they get incorrect information. Also, if the traffic signals are wrong and an accident happens, the pedestrian involved could sue, causing financial loss and other undesirable outcomes. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Driver driver information Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is sent to all drivers and is also directly observable, by design. This is the primary signal trusted by the driver to decide whether to go through the intersection and what speed to go through the intersection at; if it's wrong, accidents could happen. If the lights are out you have to get a policeman to direct traffic – expensive and inefficient and may cause a cascading effect due to lack of coordination with other intersections.
ITS Roadway Equipment Pedestrian crossing permission Not Applicable High Low
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, they may react instinctively to incorrect information and be led to cross at unsafe times if they get incorrect information. Also, if the traffic signals are wrong and an accident happens, the pedestrian involved could sue, causing financial loss and other undesirable outcomes. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Traffic Management Center rail crossing blockage notification Moderate High High
Contains information that may be predictive of a serious traffic/rail incident. For privacy purposes, this should probably not be advertised. Data predictive of potentially catastrophic incident needs to be correct so that appropriate actions are taken. This is a high priority to the vehicle blocking the HRI. Impact is not broad, but very severe. Hard to justify a MODERATE given the consequences.
ITS Roadway Equipment Traffic Management Center rail crossing status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
ITS Roadway Equipment Wayside Equipment rail crossing blockage notification Moderate High High
Contains information that may be predictive of a serious traffic/rail incident. For privacy purposes, this should probably not be advertised. Data predictive of potentially catastrophic incident needs to be correct so that appropriate actions are taken. This is a high priority to the vehicle blocking the HRI. Impact is not broad, but very severe. Hard to justify a MODERATE given the consequences.
ITS Roadway Equipment Wayside Equipment rail crossing operational status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Pedestrian ITS Roadway Equipment crossing call Not Applicable High Low
The "Not Applicable" group includes information flows that do not actually carry information; for example, flows that represent the physical environment. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, and should ensure that they are detected by pedestrian detection systems, they may not always be detected and be led to cross at unsafe times if the ITS RE obtains incorrect information. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
Personal Information Device Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment personal location Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. It can also be determined via other visual indicators. An incorrect locations message, could lead to a false warning or lack of warning. A lack of warning can have obvious catastrophic consequences, while a false warning could lead to users ignoring warnings due to perceived inaccuracy. Given that this triple may apply to highly dynamic environments (such as work zones), its accuracy is paramount, and thus if sent, must have HIGH integrity. DISC: NYC believes this to be HIGH if the data is used as part of Pedestrian-focused goals, but in other circumstances might be LOW and treated as informative information only. There are other visual indicators about the geofenced areas. PID users in dynamic environments (incident and work zones) should know when they are leaving a geofenced area. As long as they remain in the geofenced area, this information is not as necessary. Not all pedestrians will carry a personal information device, and the system should be able to operate without this information.
Personal Information Device Cyclist personal updates Not Applicable Moderate Moderate
This data is informing the pedestrian about the safety of the intersections. It should not contain anything sensitive, and does not matter if another person can observe it. This is the information that is presented to the individual. If they receive incorrect information, they may act in an unsafe manner. However, there are other indicators that would alert them to any hazards, such as an oncoming vehicle or crossing safety lights. If this information is not made available to the pedestrian, then the system has not operated correctly.
Personal Information Device Pedestrian personal updates Not Applicable Moderate Moderate
This data is informing the pedestrian about the safety of the intersections. It should not contain anything sensitive, and does not matter if another person can observe it. This is the information that is presented to the individual. If they receive incorrect information, they may act in an unsafe manner. However, there are other indicators that would alert them to any hazards, such as an oncoming vehicle or crossing safety lights. If this information is not made available to the pedestrian, then the system has not operated correctly.
Traffic Management Center Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment rail crossing application info Moderate Moderate Low
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or cause the appearance of excessive traffic violations, leading to further unnecessary investigation. A delay in reporting this may cause a delay in necessary maintenance, but (a) this is not time-critical and (b) there are other channels for reporting malfunctioning. Additionally, there is a message received notification, which means that RSE can ensure that all intersection safety issues are delivered.
Traffic Management Center ITS Roadway Equipment rail crossing control data Moderate High Moderate
Control flows, even for seemingly innocent devices, should be kept confidential to minimize attack vectors. While an individual installation may not be particularly impacted by a cyberattack of its sensor network, another installation might be severely impacted, and different installations are likely to use similar methods, so compromising one leads to compromising all. Control flows, even for seemingly innocent devices, should have MODERATE integrity at minimum, just to guarantee that intended control messages are received. Incorrect, corrupted, intercepted and modified control messages can or will result in target field devices not behaving according to operator intent. The severity of this depends on the type of device, which is why some devices are set MODERATE and some HIGH. Control flow availability is related to the criticality of being able to remotely control the device. For most devices, this is MODERATE. For purely passive devices with no incident relationship, this will be LOW. All devices should have default modes that enable them to operate without backhaul connectivity, so no device warrants a HIGH.
Traffic Management Center ITS Roadway Equipment rail crossing request Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Traffic Management Center Rail Operations Center rail crossing advisories Moderate Moderate Moderate
May contain sensitive information about the highway-rail intersection area. If intercepted by a third party, could be used to embarras the relevant stakeholders, or as contributing information toward target selection (if for example a piece of monitoring equipment was listed as non-functional). This will trigger maintenance activity, so it must be correct or such activities will not be properly scheduled and resources suboptimally assgned. If unavailable or modified, may negatively contribute to mobility and safety. This will trigger maintenance activity, so it must be correct or such activities will not be properly scheduled and resources suboptimally assgned. If unavailable or modified, may negatively contribute to mobility and safety.
Vehicle OBE Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment intersection infringement info Low High Moderate
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. It can also be determined via other visual indicators. This message is an indication of a potential hazard and should not be easy to forge. False messages here may lead to confusion that causes a traffic accident. This message is an indication of a potential hazard. If it isn't received it increases the risk to other road users. If a vehicle is infringing on an intersection, it must report this.
Vehicle OBE Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment vehicle location and motion Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Much of its information content can also be determined via other visual indicators Incorrect information could lead to the system not operating properly. If the system does not properly know where the vehicle is, it cannot make an accurate decision about whether there is going to be a pedestrian in the crosswalk that the vehicle is approaching. This can have a safety impact.; DISC: NYC believes this to be MODERATE This data is required for the system to operate properly. If this data is not available, the system cannot give accurate warning information.
Vehicle OBE Driver driver updates Not Applicable Moderate Moderate
This data is informing the driver about the safety of a nearby area. It should not contain anything sensitive, and does not matter if another person can observe it. This is the information that is presented to the driver. If they receive incorrect information, they may act in an unsafe manner. However, there are other indicators that would alert them to any hazards, such as an oncoming vehicle or crossing safety lights. If this information is not made available to the driver, then the system has not operated correctly.
Wayside Equipment Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment arriving train information Not Applicable High High
Trains arriving should be visible, viewable and certainly not concealed. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. Since this flow can lead to other actions with other effects, HIGH is justifiable.
Wayside Equipment Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment track status Low Moderate Moderate
Track status is typically physically viewable information. This information is important, but if it is incorrecct there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Wayside Equipment ITS Roadway Equipment arriving train information Not Applicable High High
Trains arriving should be visible, viewable and certainly not concealed. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. This flow is an intermediate to the end user, but may also be used by an intermediary process for some other action. Regardless, it forms the basis for providing data that, if incorrect, could lead to a catastrophic mistake. Since this flow can lead to other actions with other effects, HIGH is justifiable.
Wayside Equipment ITS Roadway Equipment track status Low Moderate Moderate
Track status is typically physically viewable information. This information is important, but if it is incorrect there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.

Standards

The following table lists the standards associated with physical objects in this service package. For standards related to interfaces, see the specific information flow triple pages.

Name Title Physical Object
ITE ATC Advanced Transportation Controller ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC API Application Programming Interface Standard for the Advanced Transportation Controller ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC ITS Cabinet Intelligent Transportation System Standard Specification for Roadside Cabinets ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC Model 2070 Model 2070 Controller Standard ITS Roadway Equipment
NEMA TS 8 Cyber and Physical Security Cyber and Physical Security for Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS Roadway Equipment
Traffic Management Center
NEMA TS2 Traffic Controller Assemblies Traffic Controller Assemblies with NTCIP Requirements ITS Roadway Equipment
USDOT RSU Dedicated Short-Range Communications Roadside Unit Specifications (FHWA-JPO-17-589) Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment