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TM13: Standard Railroad Grade Crossing

This service package manages highway traffic at highway-rail intersections (HRIs) where operational requirements do not dictate more advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are less than 80 miles per hour). Both passive (e.g., the crossbuck sign) and active warning systems (e.g., flashing lights and gates) are supported. (Note that passive systems exercise only the single interface between the ITS Roadway Equipment and the Driver in the physical view.) These traditional HRI warning systems may also be augmented with other standard traffic management devices. The warning systems are activated on notification of an approaching train by interfaced wayside equipment. The equipment at the HRI may also be interconnected with adjacent signalized intersections so that local control can be adapted to highway-rail intersection activities. Health monitoring of the HRI equipment and interfaces is performed; detected abnormalities are reported to both highway and railroad officials through wayside interfaces and interfaces to the Traffic Management Center.

Relevant Regions: Australia, Canada, European Union, and United States

Enterprise

Development Stage Roles and Relationships

Installation Stage Roles and Relationships

Operations Stage Roles and Relationships
(hide)

Source Destination Role/Relationship
ITS Roadway Equipment Manager ITS Roadway Equipment Manages
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owns
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Traffic Management Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
ITS Roadway Equipment Supplier ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Warranty
Rail Operations Center Manager Rail Operations Center Manages
Rail Operations Center Owner Rail Operations Center Owns
Rail Operations Center Owner Rail Operations Center Manager Operations Agreement
Rail Operations Center Supplier Rail Operations Center Owner Warranty
Traffic Management Center Manager Traffic Management Center Manages
Traffic Management Center Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Traffic Management Center Owner Rail Operations Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owns
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Traffic Management Center Supplier Traffic Management Center Owner Warranty
Wayside Equipment Manager Wayside Equipment Manages
Wayside Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Equipment Owner Information Exchange and Action Agreement
Wayside Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Owns
Wayside Equipment Owner Wayside Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
Wayside Equipment Supplier Wayside Equipment Owner Warranty

Maintenance Stage Roles and Relationships

Physical

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Includes Physical Objects:

Physical Object Class Description
Cyclist Personal 'Cyclist' participates in ITS services that support safe, shared use of the transportation network by motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. Representing those using non-motorized travel modes, and in particular bicyclists that sometimes share motor vehicle lanes, cyclists provide input (e.g. a call signal requesting right of way at an intersection) and may be detected by ITS services to improve safety.
Driver Vehicle The 'Driver' represents the person that operates a vehicle on the roadway. Included are operators of private, transit, commercial, and emergency vehicles where the interactions are not particular to the type of vehicle (e.g., interactions supporting vehicle safety applications). The Driver originates driver requests and receives driver information that reflects the interactions which might be useful to all drivers, regardless of vehicle classification. Information and interactions which are unique to drivers of a specific vehicle type (e.g., fleet interactions with transit, commercial, or emergency vehicle drivers) are covered by separate objects.
ITS Roadway Equipment Field 'ITS Roadway Equipment' represents the ITS equipment that is distributed on and along the roadway that monitors and controls traffic and monitors and manages the roadway. This physical object includes traffic detectors, environmental sensors, traffic signals, highway advisory radios, dynamic message signs, CCTV cameras and video image processing systems, grade crossing warning systems, and ramp metering systems. Lane management systems and barrier systems that control access to transportation infrastructure such as roadways, bridges and tunnels are also included. This object also provides environmental monitoring including sensors that measure road conditions, surface weather, and vehicle emissions. Work zone systems including work zone surveillance, traffic control, driver warning, and work crew safety systems are also included.
Pedestrian Personal 'Pedestrian' participates in ITS services that support safe, shared use of the transportation network by motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. Representing those using non-motorized travel modes, pedestrians provide input (e.g. a call signal requesting right of way at an intersection) and may be detected by ITS services to improve safety. This object also includes travelers in special motorized conveyances, which travel at slow speed through portions of the transportation network and interact with ITS systems in a manner similar to that of Pedestrians.
Rail Operations Center Center 'Rail Operations Center' represents the (usually) centralized control point for a substantial segment of a freight railroad's operations and maintenance activities. It is roughly the railroad equivalent to a highway Traffic Management Center. It is the source and destination of information that can be used to coordinate rail and highway traffic management and maintenance operations. It is also the source and destination for incident, incident response, disaster, or evacuation information that is exchanged with an Emergency Management Center. The use of a single object for multiple sources and destination for information exchange with railroads implies the need for a single, consistent interface between a given railroad's operations and maintenance activities and ITS.
Traffic Management Center Center The 'Traffic Management Center' monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centers that manage a broad range of transportation facilities including freeway systems, rural and suburban highway systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems. It communicates with ITS Roadway Equipment and Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment (RSE) to monitor and manage traffic flow and monitor the condition of the roadway, surrounding environmental conditions, and field equipment status. It manages traffic and transportation resources to support allied agencies in responding to, and recovering from, incidents ranging from minor traffic incidents through major disasters.
Wayside Equipment Field 'Wayside Equipment' represents train interface equipment (usually) maintained and operated by the railroad and (usually) physically located at or near a grade crossing. It is a source and destination for information for, or about, approaching trains and their crews (e.g. the time at which the train will arrive and the time it will take to clear a crossing, crossing status or warnings, etc.). Generally one wayside equipment interface would be associated with one highway rail intersection. However, multiple crossings may be controlled using information based on data from one wayside equipment interface.

Includes Functional Objects:

Functional Object Description Physical Object
Roadway Standard Rail Crossing 'Roadway Standard Rail Crossing' manages highway traffic at highway-rail intersections (HRIs) where operational requirements do not dictate advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are less than 80 miles per hour). Either passive (e.g., the crossbuck sign) or active warning systems (e.g., flashing lights and gates) are supported depending on the specific requirements for each intersection. These traditional HRI warning systems may also be augmented with other standard traffic management devices. The warning systems are activated on notification of an approaching train by interfaced wayside equipment. The equipment at the HRI may also be interconnected with adjacent signalized intersections so that local control can be adapted to highway-rail intersection activities. Health monitoring of the HRI equipment and interfaces is performed; detected abnormalities are reported through interfaces to the wayside interface equipment and the Traffic Management Center. ITS Roadway Equipment
TMC Standard Rail Crossing Management 'TMC Standard Rail Crossing Management' monitors and controls rail crossing traffic control equipment. This version provides basic support for standard active warning systems at grade crossings. It remotely monitors and reports the status of the rail crossing equipment and sends control plan updates to the equipment. Traffic Management Center

Includes Information Flows:

Information Flow Description
crossing call Non-motorized user request to cross the roadway. This is an overt request from a pedestrian, cyclist, or other vulnerable road user. This overt request may be a physical button push or hovering or gesturing in the vicinity of the button that supports contactless activation.
crossing permission Information provided to guide and warn pedestrians at crossings including crossing request acknowledgment, current crossing permission, crossing time remaining, and real-time warnings of safety threats.
driver information Regulatory, warning, and guidance information provided to the driver while en route to support safe and efficient vehicle operation.
rail crossing advisories Notification of Highway-Rail Intersection equipment failure, intersection blockage, or other condition requiring attention, and maintenance activities at or near highway rail intersections.
rail crossing control data Data required for HRI information transmitted at railroad grade crossings and within railroad operations.
rail crossing operational status Status of the highway-rail grade crossing equipment including both the current state or mode of operation and the current equipment condition.
rail crossing request A request for highway-rail intersection status or a specific control request intended to modify HRI operation.
rail crossing status Status of the highway-rail intersection equipment including both the current state or mode of operation and the current equipment condition.
track status Current status of the wayside equipment and notification of an arriving train.

Goals and Objectives

Associated Planning Factors and Goals

Planning Factor Goal
B. Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; Achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads

Associated Objective Categories

Objective Category
Safety: Vehicle Crashes and Fatalities

Associated Objectives and Performance Measures

Objective Performance Measure
Reduce crashes at railroad crossings Number of crashes and fatalities at railroad crossings
Reduce crashes due to driver errors and limitations Number of crashes and fatalities related to driver inattention and distraction
Reduce crashes due to driver errors and limitations Number of crashes and fatalities related to driving while intoxicated
Reduce the number of pedestrian fatalities by X percent by year Y. Number of pedestrian fatalities
Reduce the number of speeding-related fatalities by X percent by year Y. Number of speeding-related fatalities
Reduce the rate fatalities in the region by X percent by year Y. Rate of fatalities (rate per vehicle miles travelled (VMT))
Reduce the rate of severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Rate of serious injuries (rate per VMT)
Reduce the total number of crashes in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes involving bicycles.
Reduce the total number of crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians in the region by X percent by year Y. Total crashes involving pedestrians.
Reduce the total number of fatalities and severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Total fatalities per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of fatalities and severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Total severe injuries per X VMT.
Reduce the total number of fatalities in the region by X percent by year Y. Number of fatalities
Reduce the total number of severe injuries in the region by X percent by year Y. Number of serious injuries


 
Since the mapping between objectives and service packages is not always straight-forward and often situation-dependent, these mappings should only be used as a starting point. Users should do their own analysis to identify the best service packages for their region.

Needs and Requirements

Need Functional Object Requirement
01 Traffic Operations need to be able to warn drivers of crossing closures in time for the driver to take appropriate action. Roadway Standard Rail Crossing 04 The field element shall receive track status from the rail wayside equipment that can be passed on to the traffic management center. This may include the current status of the tracks and whether a train is approaching.
06 The field element shall control the dynamic message signs (DMS) in the vicinity of a highway-rail intersection (HRI) to advise drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians of approaching trains.
09 The field element shall forward rail traffic advisories received from the Wayside Equipment to the traffic management center.
02 Traffic Operations need to be able to modify traffic signal timing in order to allow safe movement of vehicles away or towards a highway rail intersection when a train is approaching. Roadway Standard Rail Crossing 01 The field element shall collect and process, traffic sensor data in the vicinity of a highway-rail intersection (HRI).
02 The field element shall monitor the status of the highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment, including both the current state and mode of operation and the current equipment condition, to be forwarded on to the traffic management center.
03 The field element shall monitor the status of the highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment, including both the current state and mode of operation and the current equipment condition, to be forwarded on to the rail wayside equipment.
05 The field element shall collect pedestrian images and pedestrian sensor data, and respond to pedestrian crossing requests via display, audio signal, or other manner.
07 The field element shall close the highway-rail intersection (HRI) when a train is approaching using gates, lights/signs, barriers, and traffic control signals.
08 The field element shall support the integrated control of adjacent traffic signals to clear an area in advance of an approaching train and to manage traffic around the intersection.
TMC Standard Rail Crossing Management 01 The center shall collect highway-rail intersection (HRI) equipment operational status including both the current state or mode of operation and the current equipment condition.

Related Sources

Document Name Version Publication Date
ITS User Services Document 1/1/2005


Security

In order to participate in this service package, each physical object should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Physical Object Security
Physical Object Confidentiality Integrity Availability Security Class
ITS Roadway Equipment Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Rail Operations Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Traffic Management Center Moderate High Moderate Class 3
Wayside Equipment Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2



In order to participate in this service package, each information flow triple should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Information Flow Security
Source Destination Information Flow Confidentiality Integrity Availability
Basis Basis Basis
Cyclist ITS Roadway Equipment crossing call Not Applicable High Low
The "Not Applicable" group includes information flows that do not actually carry information; for example, flows that represent the physical environment. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, and should ensure that they are detected by pedestrian detection systems, they may not always be detected and be led to cross at unsafe times if the ITS RE obtains incorrect information. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Cyclist crossing permission Not Applicable High Low
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, they may react instinctively to incorrect information and be led to cross at unsafe times if they get incorrect information. Also, if the traffic signals are wrong and an accident happens, the pedestrian involved could sue, causing financial loss and other undesirable outcomes. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Driver driver information Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is sent to all drivers and is also directly observable, by design. This is the primary signal trusted by the driver to decide whether to go through the intersection and what speed to go through the intersection at; if it's wrong, accidents could happen. If the lights are out you have to get a policeman to direct traffic – expensive and inefficient and may cause a cascading effect due to lack of coordination with other intersections.
ITS Roadway Equipment Pedestrian crossing permission Not Applicable High Low
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, they may react instinctively to incorrect information and be led to cross at unsafe times if they get incorrect information. Also, if the traffic signals are wrong and an accident happens, the pedestrian involved could sue, causing financial loss and other undesirable outcomes. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
ITS Roadway Equipment Traffic Management Center rail crossing status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
ITS Roadway Equipment Wayside Equipment rail crossing operational status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Pedestrian ITS Roadway Equipment crossing call Not Applicable High Low
The "Not Applicable" group includes information flows that do not actually carry information; for example, flows that represent the physical environment. Although pedestrians have a responsibility to make sure the road is safe before they cross, and should ensure that they are detected by pedestrian detection systems, they may not always be detected and be led to cross at unsafe times if the ITS RE obtains incorrect information. It is easy to tell whether this information flow is available and pedestrians are used to using crosswalks that do not provide this service.
Traffic Management Center ITS Roadway Equipment rail crossing control data Moderate High Moderate
Control flows, even for seemingly innocent devices, should be kept confidential to minimize attack vectors. While an individual installation may not be particularly impacted by a cyberattack of its sensor network, another installation might be severely impacted, and different installations are likely to use similar methods, so compromising one leads to compromising all. Control flows, even for seemingly innocent devices, should have MODERATE integrity at minimum, just to guarantee that intended control messages are received. Incorrect, corrupted, intercepted and modified control messages can or will result in target field devices not behaving according to operator intent. The severity of this depends on the type of device, which is why some devices are set MODERATE and some HIGH. Control flow availability is related to the criticality of being able to remotely control the device. For most devices, this is MODERATE. For purely passive devices with no incident relationship, this will be LOW. All devices should have default modes that enable them to operate without backhaul connectivity, so no device warrants a HIGH.
Traffic Management Center ITS Roadway Equipment rail crossing request Moderate Moderate Moderate
This information could be of interest to a malicious individual who is attempting to determine the best way to accomplish a crime. As such it would be best to not make it easily accessible. If this is compromised, it could send unnecessary maintenance workers, or suggest actions that are incorrect for the true situation. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.
Traffic Management Center Rail Operations Center rail crossing advisories Moderate Moderate Moderate
May contain sensitive information about the highway-rail intersection area. If intercepted by a third party, could be used to embarras the relevant stakeholders, or as contributing information toward target selection (if for example a piece of monitoring equipment was listed as non-functional). This will trigger maintenance activity, so it must be correct or such activities will not be properly scheduled and resources suboptimally assgned. If unavailable or modified, may negatively contribute to mobility and safety. This will trigger maintenance activity, so it must be correct or such activities will not be properly scheduled and resources suboptimally assgned. If unavailable or modified, may negatively contribute to mobility and safety.
Wayside Equipment ITS Roadway Equipment track status Low Moderate Moderate
Track status is typically physically viewable information. This information is important, but if it is incorrect there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms. This information is important, but if it is not reported there are other safety systems that should prevent related incidents. The impact of any rail/road intersection is particularly high, but in this case a MODERATE rating can be justified by the alternative mechanisms.

Standards

The following table lists the standards associated with physical objects in this service package. For standards related to interfaces, see the specific information flow triple pages.

Name Title Physical Object
ITE ATC Advanced Transportation Controller ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC API Application Programming Interface Standard for the Advanced Transportation Controller ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC ITS Cabinet Intelligent Transportation System Standard Specification for Roadside Cabinets ITS Roadway Equipment
ITE ATC Model 2070 Model 2070 Controller Standard ITS Roadway Equipment
NEMA TS 8 Cyber and Physical Security Cyber and Physical Security for Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS Roadway Equipment
Traffic Management Center
NEMA TS2 Traffic Controller Assemblies Traffic Controller Assemblies with NTCIP Requirements ITS Roadway Equipment