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TM10: Electronic Toll Collection

The Electronic Toll Collection service package provides toll operators with the ability to collect tolls electronically and detect and process violations. The fees that are collected may be adjusted to implement demand management strategies. Field-Vehicle Communication between the roadway equipment and the vehicle is required as well as Fixed Point-Fixed Point interfaces between the toll collection equipment and transportation authorities and the financial infrastructure that supports fee collection. Toll violations are identified and electronically posted to vehicle owners. Standards, inter-agency coordination, and financial clearinghouse capabilities enable broad interoperability for these services.

Relevant Regions: Australia, Canada, European Union, and United States

Enterprise

Development Stage Roles and Relationships

Installation Stage Roles and Relationships

Operations Stage Roles and Relationships
(hide)

Source Destination Role/Relationship
DMV Manager DMV Manages
DMV Owner DMV Owns
DMV Owner DMV Manager Operations Agreement
DMV Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
DMV Supplier DMV Owner Warranty
Driver ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Operates
Driver Vehicle OBE Operates
Enforcement Center Manager Enforcement Center Manages
Enforcement Center Owner Enforcement Center Owns
Enforcement Center Owner Enforcement Center Manager Operations Agreement
Enforcement Center Supplier Enforcement Center Owner Warranty
Financial Center Manager Financial Center Manages
Financial Center Owner Financial Center Owns
Financial Center Owner Financial Center Manager Operations Agreement
Financial Center Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Financial Center Supplier Financial Center Owner Warranty
Fleet and Freight Management Center Manager Fleet and Freight Management Center Manages
Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Fleet and Freight Management Center Owns
Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Fleet and Freight Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Transportation Information Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Fleet and Freight Management Center Supplier Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Warranty
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Manager Driver System Usage Agreement
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Manager ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Manages
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owns
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Manager Operations Agreement
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner Vehicle OBE Owner Expectation of Information Provision
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Supplier ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner Warranty
Other Payment Administration Centers Manager Other Payment Administration Centers Manages
Other Payment Administration Centers Owner Other Payment Administration Centers Owns
Other Payment Administration Centers Owner Other Payment Administration Centers Manager Operations Agreement
Other Payment Administration Centers Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Other Payment Administration Centers Supplier Other Payment Administration Centers Owner Warranty
Payment Administration Center Manager Payment Administration Center Manages
Payment Administration Center Manager Payment Administrator System Usage Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner DMV Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Enforcement Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Financial Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Other Payment Administration Centers Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Payment Administration Center Owns
Payment Administration Center Owner Payment Administration Center Manager Operations Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Personal Information Device Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Transportation Information Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Owner Vehicle OBE Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Payment Administration Center Supplier Payment Administration Center Owner Warranty
Payment Administrator Payment Administration Center Operates
Payment Device Manager Payment Device Manages
Payment Device Owner Payment Device Owns
Payment Device Owner Payment Device Manager Operations Agreement
Payment Device Supplier Payment Device Owner Warranty
Personal Information Device Manager Personal Information Device Manages
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Owns
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Manager Operations Agreement
Personal Information Device Supplier Personal Information Device Owner Warranty
Traffic Management Center Manager Traffic Management Center Manages
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owns
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Traffic Management Center Supplier Traffic Management Center Owner Warranty
Transportation Information Center Manager Transportation Information Center Manages
Transportation Information Center Owner Fleet and Freight Management Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Transportation Information Center Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Transportation Information Center Owner Transportation Information Center Owns
Transportation Information Center Owner Transportation Information Center Manager Operations Agreement
Transportation Information Center Supplier Transportation Information Center Owner Warranty
Vehicle OBE Manager Driver System Usage Agreement
Vehicle OBE Manager Vehicle OBE Manages
Vehicle OBE Owner Payment Administration Center Owner Information Exchange Agreement
Vehicle OBE Owner Vehicle OBE Owns
Vehicle OBE Owner Vehicle OBE Manager Operations Agreement
Vehicle OBE Supplier Vehicle OBE Owner Warranty

Maintenance Stage Roles and Relationships

Functional

This service package includes the following Functional View PSpecs:

Physical Object Functional Object PSpec Number PSpec Name
Fleet and Freight Management Center Fleet Administration 2.1.1.1 Manage Commercial Fleet Electronic Credentials and Tax Filing
2.1.1.2 Manage Commercial Vehicle Routes
2.1.1.3 Provide Commercial Fleet Static Route
2.1.1.6 Monitor Commercial Vehicle Route
2.1.2 Provide Commercial Vehicle Fleet Manager Interface
2.1.3 Provide Fleet Manager Commercial Vehicle Communications
2.1.5 Manage Driver Instruction Store
2.1.6 Manage Commercial Vehicle Incidents
2.2.1 Manage CV Electronic Credential and Tax Filing Interface
2.6.1 Provide Commercial Vehicle Manager Tag Data Interface
2.7.6 Provide Freight Manager Interface
2.7.7 Provide Shipper Booking Interface
2.7.8 Manage External Intermodal System Interface
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Roadway Toll Collection Support 7.1.1.4 Check for Advanced Tolls Payment
7.1.2 Produce Roadside Displays
7.1.5 Detect Vehicle for Tolls
Payment Administration Center PAC Payment Administration 5.4.2 Process Violations for Tolls
7.1.1.3 Manage Bad Toll Payment Data
7.1.1.6 Collect Probe Data From Toll Transactions
7.1.1.7 Update Toll Price Data
7.1.1.8 Register for Advanced Toll Payment
7.1.1.9 Manage Toll Processing
7.1.8 Exchange Data with Other Payment Administration
7.4.1.8 Process Electric Charging Payments
7.6.1.2 Calculate Vehicle Road Use Payment Charges
7.6.1.4 Manage Road Use Charging Price Data
7.6.1.5 Manage Road Use Charges Processing
7.6.5 Exchange Road Use Charging Data with Other Payment Administration
7.6.6.1 Provide Road Use Charging Services User Interface
7.6.8 Provide Road Use Charging Enforcement Interface
7.7 Administer Multimodal Payments
Personal Information Device Personal Interactive Traveler Information 6.8.1.1.1 Determine Personal Portable Device Guidance Method
6.8.1.1.2 Provide Personal Portable Device Dynamic Guidance
6.8.3.1 Get Traveler Personal Request
6.8.3.2 Provide Traveler with Personal Travel Information
6.8.3.3 Provide Traveler Personal Interface
6.8.3.4 Update Traveler Personal Display Map Data
6.8.3.5 Provide Traveler Transit Services Interface
6.8.3.6 Provide Personal Safety Messages
6.8.3.7 Manage Traveler Personal Social Media Interface
7.5.3 Provide Personal Payment Device Interface
7.6.6.3 Provide Road Use Charging Services Personal Interface
Transportation Information Center TIC Data Collection 6.2.1 Collect Misc Traveler Information
6.2.2 Collect Traffic Data
6.2.3 Collect Transit Operations Data
6.2.4 Collect Multimodal Data
6.2.5 Collect Situation and Sensor Data From Vehicles
6.2.6 Collect Emergency Traveler Data
6.5.4 Process Travel Services Provider Data
6.6.2.3 Provide Route Segment Data for Other Areas
7.4.2 Collect Price Data for Traveler Information Use
TIC Trip Planning 6.1.1 Provide Trip Planning Information to Traveler
6.1.2 Confirm Traveler's Trip Plan
6.1.3 Provide Operator Interface for Trip Planning Parameters
6.10 Manage Traveler Profiles
6.2.1 Collect Misc Traveler Information
6.2.2 Collect Traffic Data
6.5.4 Process Travel Services Provider Data
6.5.9 Provide Traveler Alert Interface
6.6.1 Provide Multimodal Route Selection
6.6.2.1 Calculate Vehicle Route
6.6.2.2 Provide Vehicle Route Calculation Data
6.6.3 Provide Operator Interface for Route Parameters
6.6.4 Select Transit Route
6.6.5 Select Other Routes
7.1.6 Distribute Advanced Charges and Fares
7.3.2 Distribute Advanced Tolls and Parking Lot Charges
7.4.1.3 Process Driver Map Update Payments
7.4.1.4 Process Traveler Map Update Payments
7.4.1.6 Process Traveler Trip and Other Services Payments
7.4.3 Route Traveler Advanced Payments
Vehicle OBE Vehicle Basic Toll/Parking Payment 7.1.7 Provide Payment Device Interface for Tolls
Vehicle Payment Service 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data
6.7.3.2 Provide Driver with Personal Travel Information
6.7.3.3 Provide Driver Information Interface
7.1.4 Provide Driver Toll Payment Interface
7.1.7 Provide Payment Device Interface for Tolls
7.2.3 Provide Driver Parking Lot Payment Interface
7.2.5 Provide Payment Device Interface for Parking
7.4.1.10 Process Vehicle Electric Charging Payments
7.5.1 Provide Vehicle Payment Device Interface
7.6.3 Provide Driver Road Use Charging Payment Interface
7.6.4 Provide Payment Device Interface for Road Use Charging

Physical

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Includes Physical Objects:

Physical Object Class Description
DMV Center The 'DMV' is a specific (state) public organization responsible for registering vehicles, e.g., the Department of Motor Vehicles.
Driver Vehicle The 'Driver' represents the person that operates a vehicle on the roadway. Included are operators of private, transit, commercial, and emergency vehicles where the interactions are not particular to the type of vehicle (e.g., interactions supporting vehicle safety applications). The Driver originates driver requests and receives driver information that reflects the interactions which might be useful to all drivers, regardless of vehicle classification. Information and interactions which are unique to drivers of a specific vehicle type (e.g., fleet interactions with transit, commercial, or emergency vehicle drivers) are covered by separate objects.
Enforcement Center Center The 'Enforcement Center' represents the systems that receive reports of violations detected by various ITS facilities including individual vehicle emissions, lane violations, toll violations, CVO violations, etc.
Financial Center Center The 'Financial Center' represents the organization that handles electronic fund transfer requests to enable the transfer of funds from the user of the service to the provider of the service. The functions and activities of financial clearinghouses are covered by this physical object.
Fleet and Freight Management Center Center The 'Fleet and Freight Management Center' provides the capability for commercial drivers and fleet-freight managers to receive real-time routing information and access databases containing vehicle and/or freight equipment locations as well as carrier, vehicle, freight equipment and driver information. The 'Fleet and Freight Management Center' also provides the capability for fleet managers to monitor the safety and security of their commercial vehicle drivers and fleet.
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Field 'ITS Roadway Payment Equipment' represents the roadway components of a toll collection system. It provides the capability for vehicle operators to pay tolls without stopping their vehicles. It supports use of locally determined pricing structures and includes the capability to implement various variable pricing policies. Typically, transactions are accompanied by feedback to the customer and a record of the transactions is provided to a back office system (e.g., the Payment Administration Center).
Other Payment Administration Centers Center Representing another Payment Administration Center, 'Other Payment Administration Centers' is intended to provide a source and destination for ITS information flows between payment administration functions. This interface allows reconciliation of toll charges and other payments across different agencies by allowing the exchange of information about clients who have incurred charges in jurisdictions other than their own (billing) customer service center. This interface enables apportioning charges and 'reciprocity' between participating customer service centers.
Payment Administration Center Center The 'Payment Administration Center' provides general payment administration capabilities and supports the electronic transfer of funds from the customer to the transportation system operator or other service provider. Charges can be recorded for tolls, vehicle-mileage charging, congestion charging, or other goods and services. It supports traveler enrollment and collection of both pre-payment and post-payment transportation fees in coordination with the financial infrastructure supporting electronic payment transactions. The system may establish and administer escrow accounts depending on the clearinghouse scheme and the type of payments involved. It may post a transaction to the customer account, generate a bill (for post-payment accounts), debit an escrow account, or interface to a financial infrastructure to debit a customer designated account. It supports communications with the ITS Roadway Payment Equipment to support fee collection operations. As an alternative, a wide-area wireless interface can be used to communicate directly with vehicle equipment. It also sets and administers the pricing structures and may implement road pricing policies in coordination with the Traffic Management Center.
Payment Administrator Center The 'Payment Administrator' represents the person(s) that manage the back office payment administration systems for electronic toll, VMT road use payment, and other services paid for from a vehicle. It monitors the systems that support the electronic transfer of funds from the customer to the system operator. It monitors customer enrollment and supports the establishment of escrow accounts depending on the clearinghouse scheme and the type of payments involved. It also establishes and administers the pricing structures and policies.
Payment Device Personal The 'Payment Device' enables the electronic transfer of funds from the user of a service (I.e. a traveler) to the provider of the service. Potential implementations include smart cards that support payment for products and services, including transportation services and general purpose devices like smart phones that support a broad array of services, including electronic payment. In addition to user account information, the payment device may also hold and update associated user information such as personal profiles, preferences, and trip histories.
Personal Information Device Personal The 'Personal Information Device' provides the capability for travelers to receive formatted traveler information wherever they are. Capabilities include traveler information, trip planning, and route guidance. Frequently a smart phone, the Personal Information Device provides travelers with the capability to receive route planning and other personally focused transportation services from the infrastructure in the field, at home, at work, or while en-route. Personal Information Devices may operate independently or may be linked with connected vehicle on-board equipment.
Traffic Management Center Center The 'Traffic Management Center' monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centers that manage a broad range of transportation facilities including freeway systems, rural and suburban highway systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems. It communicates with ITS Roadway Equipment and Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment (RSE) to monitor and manage traffic flow and monitor the condition of the roadway, surrounding environmental conditions, and field equipment status. It manages traffic and transportation resources to support allied agencies in responding to, and recovering from, incidents ranging from minor traffic incidents through major disasters.
Transportation Information Center Center The 'Transportation Information Center' collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and the traveling public. The physical object can play several different roles in an integrated ITS. In one role, the TIC provides a data collection, fusing, and repackaging function, collecting information from transportation system operators and redistributing this information to other system operators in the region and other TICs. In this information redistribution role, the TIC provides a bridge between the various transportation systems that produce the information and the other TICs and their subscribers that use the information. The second role of a TIC is focused on delivery of traveler information to subscribers and the public at large. Information provided includes basic advisories, traffic and road conditions, transit schedule information, yellow pages information, ride matching information, and parking information. The TIC is commonly implemented as a website or a web-based application service, but it represents any traveler information distribution service.
Vehicle OBE Vehicle The Vehicle On-Board Equipment (OBE) provides the vehicle-based sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions that support efficient, safe, and convenient travel. The Vehicle OBE includes general capabilities that apply to passenger cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Many of these capabilities (e.g., see the Vehicle Safety service packages) apply to all vehicle types including personal vehicles, commercial vehicles, emergency vehicles, transit vehicles, and maintenance vehicles. From this perspective, the Vehicle OBE includes the common interfaces and functions that apply to all motorized vehicles. The radio(s) supporting V2V and V2I communications are a key component of the Vehicle OBE. Both one-way and two-way communications options support a spectrum of information services from basic broadcast to advanced personalized information services. Route guidance capabilities assist in formulation of an optimal route and step by step guidance along the travel route. Advanced sensors, processors, enhanced driver interfaces, and actuators complement the driver information services so that, in addition to making informed mode and route selections, the driver travels these routes in a safer and more consistent manner. This physical object supports all six levels of driving automation as defined in SAE J3016. Initial collision avoidance functions provide 'vigilant co-pilot' driver warning capabilities. More advanced functions assume limited control of the vehicle to maintain lane position and safe headways. In the most advanced implementations, this Physical Object supports full automation of all aspects of the driving task, aided by communications with other vehicles in the vicinity and in coordination with supporting infrastructure subsystems.

Includes Functional Objects:

Functional Object Description Physical Object
Fleet Administration 'Fleet Administration' provides vehicle tracking, dispatch, and reporting capabilities to fleet management personnel. It gathers current road conditions, commercial vehicle-specific traffic and parking information, prepares vehicle routes, and provides a fleet interface for toll collection. It also provides route plan information for network performance evaluation. As part of the tracking function, it monitors commercial vehicle location, compares it against the known route and notifies the Emergency Management Center and Fleet-Freight Manager of any deviations, including HAZMAT route restriction violations. It supports carrier participation in wireless roadside inspection programs, monitoring geographic trigger areas and providing current safety data on behalf of the commercial vehicles it manages. It supports pre-hiring checks for potential drivers and monitors the performance of each driver who is hired. It also supports ongoing monitoring of the company's safety performance. Fleet and Freight Management Center
PAC Payment Administration 'PAC Payment Administration' provides administration and management of payments associated with electronic toll collection, parking payments, and other e-payments. It provides the back office functions that support enrollment, pricing, payment reconciliation with financial institutions, and violation notification to enforcement agencies. It also supports dynamic pricing to support demand management. Secure communications with the financial infrastructure and distributed payment infrastructure, including toll plazas, support electronic payments and other ancillary requirements such as lost payment device identification and management. Payment Administration Center
Personal Interactive Traveler Information 'Personal Interactive Traveler Information' provides traffic information, road conditions, transit information, yellow pages (traveler services) information, special event information, and other traveler information that is specifically tailored based on the traveler's request and/or previously submitted traveler profile information. It also supports interactive services that support enrollment, account management, and payments for transportation services. The interactive traveler information capability is provided by personal devices including personal computers and personal portable devices such as smart phones. Personal Information Device
Roadway Toll Collection Support 'Roadway Toll Collection Support' provides toll plazas the capability to identify properly equipped vehicles, collect electronic tolls, and provide a positive indication to the driver that a toll was collected. Violators are identified and images are collected. Toll transactions are stored and reported to the Payment Administration Center. ITS Roadway Payment Equipment
TIC Data Collection 'TIC Data Collection' collects transportation-related data from other centers, performs data quality checks on the collected data and then consolidates, verifies, and refines the data and makes it available in a consistent format to applications that support operational data sharing between centers and deliver traveler information to end-users. A broad range of data is collected including traffic and road conditions, transit data, emergency information and advisories, weather data, special event information, traveler services, parking, multimodal data, and toll/pricing data. It also shares data with other transportation information centers. Transportation Information Center
TIC Trip Planning 'TIC Trip Planning' provides pre-trip and en route trip planning services for travelers. It receives origin, destination, constraints, and preferences and returns trip plan(s) that meet the supplied criteria. Trip plans may be based on current traffic and road conditions, transit schedule information, and other real-time traveler information. Candidate trip plans are multimodal and may include vehicle, transit, and alternate mode segments (e.g., rail, ferry, bicycle routes, and walkways) based on traveler preferences. It also confirms the trip plan for the traveler and supports reservations and advanced payment for portions of the trip. The trip plan includes specific routing information and instructions for each segment of the trip and may also include information and reservations for additional services (e.g., parking) along the route. Transportation Information Center
Vehicle Basic Toll/Parking Payment 'Vehicle Basic Toll/Parking Payment' includes the traditional on-board systems that pay for tolls and parking electronically. It includes the in-vehicle equipment that communicates with the toll/parking plaza and an optional interface to a carry-in payment device. See also 'Vehicle Payment Services', which provides a broader range of payment services. Vehicle OBE
Vehicle Payment Service 'Vehicle Payment Service' supports vehicle payments including VMT- and zone-based payments and payments for other services including fuel/charging services, tolls, and parking. To support VMT-based payment, this application tracks the location of the vehicle at specific times and reports this VMT data along with vehicle identification. A variety of pricing strategies are supported, including strategies that include credits or incentives that reward desired driving patterns and behavior. The onboard equipment supports secure short range communications with connected vehicle roadside equipment to support secure payments. Vehicle OBE

Includes Information Flows:

Information Flow Description
actuate secure payment Initiation of a payment action based on an encrypted token or biometric marker.
authorization request Request to determine if a transportation user is authorized to use a particular transportation resource.
authorization response Notification of status of authorization request.
driver input Driver input to the vehicle on-board equipment including configuration data, settings and preferences, interactive requests, and control commands.
driver updates Information provided to the driver including visual displays, audible information and warnings, and haptic feedback. The updates inform the driver about current conditions, potential hazards, and the current status of vehicle on-board equipment.
license request Request supporting registration data based on license plate read during violation or at the scene of an incident.
payment administration requests Personnel inputs that control system operations, including requests to change toll fees, confirmation that alerts should be provided to toll operators, management of VMT charge policies and management of VMT account processing, etc.
payment device update Information updated concerning traveler's personal data including name, address, user account information, trip records, and profile data.
payment information presentation Presentation of information to personnel including revenues, reports, operational status information, and alert information.
payment instructions Information provided to configure and support fixed point payment operations including pricing information, user account information, and operational parameters used to control equipment that controls access, collects payment, and detects and processes violations.
payment methods financial institution A list of valid payment methods accepted by a financial center.
payment request Request for payment from financial institution or related financial service requests (e.g., balance inquiry)
payment transaction status The status of an electronic payment transaction provided directly to the driver via sign or other roadside infrastructure.
payment transactions Detailed list of transactions including violations. Each transaction includes the date/time, vehicle/customer, and transaction amount. Additional information is included to support delayed payment and violation processing.
payment violation notification Notification to enforcement agency of a toll, parking, or transit fare payment violation.
registered secureIDs Cryptographically protected identifier indicating that the user associated with the identifier is entitled to use a particular service.
registration Registered owner of vehicle and associated vehicle information.
request for payment Request to deduct cost of service from user's payment account.
settlement Information exchanged to settle charges and distribute or debit accounts appropriate to the authorized charges.
toll coordination This flow supports reciprocity between toll agencies/service centers by exchanging information that supports reconciliation of toll charges by customers that are enrolled with other toll service centers. In addition to toll charge reconciliation, exchanged information may include toll schedule information, customer information and other toll service information that is coordinated between toll agencies or centers.
toll data Current toll schedules for different types of vehicles as well as advanced toll payment information.
toll data request Request made to obtain toll schedule information or pay a toll in advance. The request can be a subscription that initiates as-needed information updates as well as a one-time request for information.
toll probe data Aggregate probe data derived from electronic toll collection operations. Data collected could include vehicle speeds and travel times for a given link or collection of links.
user account reports Reports on services offered/provided and associated charges.
user account setup Billing information, vehicle information (or registration information), and requests for reports. Also includes subsequent account changes.
vehicle payment update Data written to vehicle equipment to support electronic toll collection or parking payment.

Goals and Objectives

Associated Planning Factors and Goals

Planning Factor Goal
A. Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency; Improve the national freight network, strengthen the ability of rural communities to access national and international trade markets, and support regional economic development
D. Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight; Achieve a significant reduction in congestion
E. Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns; Enhance the performance of the transportation system while protecting and enhancing the natural environment
G. Promote efficient system management and operation; Improve the efficiency of the surface transportation system

Associated Objective Categories

Objective Category
Freeway Management: Pricing and Tolling
System Efficiency: Cost of Congestion
System Efficiency: Delay
System Efficiency: Energy Consumption
System Efficiency: Intensity of Congestion (Travel Time Index)
System Efficiency: Travel Time

Associated Objectives and Performance Measures

Objective Performance Measure
Annual rate of change in regional average commute travel time will not exceed regional rate of population growth through the year Y. Average commute trip travel time (minutes).
Improve average travel time during peak periods by X percent by year Y. Average travel time during peak periods (minutes).
Increase the percentage of users carrying electronic toll collection (ETC) transponders by X percent by year Y. Percentage of drivers with ETC transponders.
Increase the share of freeways that are priced to X percent by year Y. Lane miles that are priced.
Increase the share of toll roadways and bridges that are using variable pricing (e.g., congestion pricing) to X percent by year Y. Share of toll roads and bridges using variable pricing.
Reduce excess fuel consumed due to congestion by X percent by year Y. Excess fuel consumed (total or per capita).
Reduce hours of delay per capita by X percent by year Y. Hours of delay (person-hours).
Reduce hours of delay per capita by X percent by year Y. Hours of delay per capita.
Reduce hours of delay per driver by X percent by year Y. Hours of delay (person-hours).
Reduce hours of delay per driver by X percent by year Y. Hours of delay per driver.
Reduce the annual monetary cost of congestion per capita for the next X years. Cost (in dollars) of congestion or delay per capita.
Reduce the regional average travel time index by X percent per year. Travel time index (the average travel time during the peak period, using congested speeds, divided by the off-peak period travel time, using posted or free-flow speeds).
Reduce total energy consumption per capita for transportation by X percent by year Y. Total energy consumed per capita for transportation.
Reduce total fuel consumption per capita for transportation by X percent by year Y. Total fuel consumed per capita for transportation.


 
Since the mapping between objectives and service packages is not always straight-forward and often situation-dependent, these mappings should only be used as a starting point. Users should do their own analysis to identify the best service packages for their region.

Needs and Requirements

Need Functional Object Requirement
01 Electronic Toll System Operators need to allow users to set up and maintain a user account. Fleet Administration 02 The center shall obtain and manage commercial vehicle routes for its fleet of vehicles, taking into account route restrictions, advance payment of tolls, HAZMAT restrictions, current traffic and road conditions, loading zone conditions, and incident information provided by traveler information systems.
PAC Payment Administration 01 The center shall manage toll transactions, including maintaining a log of all transactions and toll pricing structure information.
04 The center shall register vehicles for road or parking use payment, establishing accounts that identify owner billing information and preferences.
06 The center shall manage a local billing database for toll customers.
Personal Interactive Traveler Information 08 The personal traveler interface shall support payment for services, such as confirmed trip plans, tolls, transit fares, parking lot charges, map updates, and advanced payment for tolls.
16 The personal traveler interface shall provide an interface to establish and manage user road pricing accounts, process road pricing payments, and access road pricing reports under user control
Roadway Toll Collection Support 05 The field element shall support advanced toll payment by checking the vehicle's toll information against a stored list of advanced payments, and debiting the toll from the list in the case of a match.
TIC Trip Planning 01 The center shall provide the capability to provide specific pre-trip and en route directions to travelers (and drivers), including costs, arrival times, and transfer points.
Vehicle Basic Toll/Parking Payment 01 The vehicle shall respond to requests from toll collection equipment for credit identity, stored value card cash, etc.
03 The vehicle shall provide an interface to the driver to make requests for advance payments of tolls, parking, and transit fares and present the status of electronic payment transactions.
04 The vehicle shall provide an interface with the traveler card / payment instrument carried on-board the vehicle - to exchange identity information and payment transactions.
02 Electronic Toll Collection needs to allow toll payment without the vehicle stopping at a toll plaza. PAC Payment Administration 01 The center shall manage toll transactions, including maintaining a log of all transactions and toll pricing structure information.
02 The center shall dynamically price tolls based on current traffic condition information.
09 The center shall respond to changes in toll prices from the Payment Administrator.
Roadway Toll Collection Support 01 The field element shall read data from passing vehicles to support toll payment transactions.
04 The field element shall read the credit identity from the passing vehicle and send that identity and the amount to be debited to a center.
06 In the case of closed toll systems, the field element shall update the vehicle on-board data with the system entry point, and upon toll system exit, use the stored data in the calculation of the toll.
07 The field element shall control roadside displays indicating success or failure of the toll transaction to the driver.
Vehicle Basic Toll/Parking Payment 05 The vehicle shall present payment information to the driver in audible or visual forms without impairing the driver's ability to control the vehicle in a safe manner.
Vehicle Payment Service 05 The vehicle shall provide payment information on request under control of the vehicle owner/operator.
03 Electronic Toll System Operators need to be able to detect, process, and notify users of toll violations in order to prevent loss of revenue due to toll violations. PAC Payment Administration 05 For electronic toll payments requiring financial payment, the center shall process the financial information from ITS roadway payment equipment and manage an interface to a Financial Institution.
07 The center shall manage the details of toll payment violations based on vehicle information from the ITS roadway payment equipment, registration information from the Department of Motor Vehicles, invalid payment information from a Financial Institution, and previous violation information stored locally, and report such violations to appropriate law enforcement agencies.
11 The center shall report payment violations including vehicle information and vehicle image to the designated Enforcement Agency.
Roadway Toll Collection Support 08 The field element shall control cameras, obtain images, and forward images of toll violators to a center.
04 Electronic Toll System Operators need to be able to support interagency coordination and financial clearinghouse operations so that multiple toll agencies are able to operate with the same type of user devices. PAC Payment Administration 08 The center shall calculate traffic flow based on timestamped toll transactions for vehicle travel between successive toll plazas and send to other agencies.
10 The center shall exchange data with other payment administration agencies to coordinate toll transactions and pricing.
TIC Data Collection 06 The center shall collect, process, and store toll fee information.
05 The toll operations need to be able to set the road pricing based on the time of the day, traffic condition and vehicle characteristics (vehicle size, weight, axle count, etc.) and stored toll prices. Roadway Toll Collection Support 02 The field element shall calculate the toll due based on the vehicle characteristics (vehicle size, weight, axle count, etc.) and stored toll prices.

Related Sources

Document Name Version Publication Date
ITS User Services Document 1/1/2005
National ITS Architecture Services


Security

In order to participate in this service package, each physical object should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Physical Object Security
Physical Object Confidentiality Integrity Availability Security Class
DMV High High Moderate Class 4
Enforcement Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Financial Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Fleet and Freight Management Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Moderate Moderate High Class 5
Other Payment Administration Centers Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Payment Administration Center High High Moderate Class 4
Payment Device Moderate Moderate High Class 5
Personal Information Device High High Moderate Class 4
Traffic Management Center Low Low Low Class 1
Transportation Information Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Vehicle OBE High High High Class 5



In order to participate in this service package, each information flow triple should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Information Flow Security
Source Destination Information Flow Confidentiality Integrity Availability
Basis Basis Basis
DMV Payment Administration Center registration Moderate Moderate Moderate
Will contain PII of driver and/or vehicle owner. Not HIGH because this affects a small number of individuals, and because safety of life is not likely a concern for this flow. Registration/ownership information needs to be correct, the lack of correctness may lead to false paths which have a nontrivial cost. Real-time decisions may be made based on this information.
Driver Vehicle OBE driver input Moderate High High
Data included in this flow may include origin and destination information, which should be protected from other's viewing as it may compromise the driver's privacy. Commands from from the driver to the vehicle must be correct or the vehicle may behave in an unpredictable and possibly unsafe manner Commands must always be able to be given or the driver has no control.
Financial Center Payment Administration Center payment methods financial institution Moderate Moderate Low
Payment methods should be widely disseminated and contain no information that could cause harm if exposed. Payment methods need to be correct so payment information can be exchanged. Could be LOW, as this should have redundancies and be able to tolerate significant latency. Payment methods need to be correct so payment information can be exchanged. Could be LOW, as this should have redundancies and be able to tolerate significant latency.
Financial Center Payment Administration Center settlement Moderate Moderate Moderate
This may include PII and will include status information about a payment that could be used by a criminal for a variety of purposes, including identity theft, financial theft, or location-based activities, as the status is predictivie of what the account holder is doing and where they are doing it. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability.
Fleet and Freight Management Center Payment Administration Center toll data request Moderate Moderate Moderate
Likely includes an identifier linking to a subscription, account or other unique information that belongs to an individual or corporate entity. Compromise of this identifier could be used to cause financial harm to its owner. Since this includes some kind of identifier that is linked to an account or payment mechanism, it must be correct or the resulting charges may fail or be assigned to the wrong account, causing financial harm to someone. Is not part of the real-time on-road charging, but will be frequently used and impact a large number of users if not available.
Fleet and Freight Management Center Transportation Information Center toll data request Moderate Moderate Moderate
Likely includes an identifier linking to a subscription, account or other unique information that belongs to an individual or corporate entity. Compromise of this identifier could be used to cause financial harm to its owner. Since this includes some kind of identifier that is linked to an account or payment mechanism, it must be correct or the resulting charges may fail or be assigned to the wrong account, causing financial harm to someone. Is not part of the real-time on-road charging, but will be frequently used and impact a large number of users if not available.
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Driver payment transaction status Low Moderate Moderate
Expected to be visually broadcast information between roadway equipment and a driver that includes no PII. If compromised, contains no information that could not be otherwise learned or impacts the driver. Payment response should be accurate and available so the driver knows what the result of his transaction was. Inaccurate data may lead to his performing other compensatory actions which are inconvient to that individual driver and may impact those behind him. Payment response should be accurate and available so the driver knows what the result of his transaction was. Inaccurate data may lead to his performing other compensatory actions which are inconvient to that individual driver and may impact those behind him.
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Payment Administration Center authorization request Moderate Moderate Moderate
Contains an identifier linked to an individual or specific device, and thus PII by definition. Compromise of one secureID would likely impact only one user, but the nature of this flow requires that the same algorithm be used for every user; algorithm compromise would harm every user, which would have widespread impact. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability.
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Payment Administration Center payment transactions Moderate Moderate Moderate
Contains PII and intended to be used for enforcement. Thus privacy implications that, while they may affect only a single individual at a time, could yield significant negative consequences to that individual. Violation information needs to be correct or the commercial vehicle may be improperly penalized, or not when it should be. This is probably not a severe consequence however, so MODERATE. More or less important depending on the context. Could even be LOW if areas of minimal import, depending on local policies.
ITS Roadway Payment Equipment Vehicle OBE vehicle payment update Moderate Moderate Moderate
Contains payment status update information intended for an individual, and thus should be concealed as it is personal information with no legitimate use by an unintended recipient. Payment information should be correct and timely or the recipient may take action to correct, or may fail to take action he should take and be penalized. Payment information should be correct and timely or the recipient may take action to correct, or may fail to take action he should take and be penalized.
Other Payment Administration Centers Payment Administration Center toll coordination Moderate Moderate Moderate
Will include payment information, at least account IDs and road use instances if not times and actual charges. If observed, could be used to track individuals or compromise payment mechanisms. If modified or corrupted could lead to incorrect charges, either to the wrong account, no account or differing amounts. Left at MODERATE because the impact should be limited to individual or at least a small number of accounts. Availability will depend on the number of cross-use interactions and the scheme for sharing charges. Generally consider this to be an operational near-real time flow, so MODERATE. If strictly batched then LOW may be more appopriate.
Payment Administration Center DMV license request High Moderate Low
Contains PII and an indication that the person(s) identified in this flow has violated a toll. Release of this information would compromise the personal privacy of those involved. Inaccurate or corrupted information in this flow could lead to a mistaken understanding of the toll violator's identity. Real-time response may be required to deal with tolling and similar violations. The number of people affected is probably quite small, but if the load becomes great the availability may need to be raised to MODERATE.
Payment Administration Center Enforcement Center payment violation notification Moderate Moderate Moderate
Contains PII and intended to be used for enforcement. Thus privacy implications that, while they may affect only a single individual at a time, could yield significant negative consequences to that individual. Violation information needs to be correct or the commercial vehicle may be improperly penalized, or not when it should be. This is probably not a severe consequence however, so MODERATE. More or less important depending on the context. Could even be LOW if areas of minimal import, depending on local policies.
Payment Administration Center Financial Center payment request Moderate Moderate Moderate
Contains account and related information that is personal and if compromised could financially impact the owner of the account. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability.
Payment Administration Center Fleet and Freight Management Center toll data Low Moderate Low
Should be public information, little benefit to obscuring this information. Since actors may use this information to plan their travels, it must be correct. Corruption or manipulation of this data may lead them to make suboptimal decisions, costing time and/or money. This flow probably does not update often. The information within is distributed via many routes.
Payment Administration Center ITS Roadway Payment Equipment authorization response Moderate Moderate Moderate
While this may not contain any PII, it does expose behavior. While an observer in place may assume payment activity, there is no sound reason to not conceal this information. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability.
Payment Administration Center ITS Roadway Payment Equipment payment instructions Moderate Moderate Moderate
This includes control information that can be considered sensitive and competitive, so it should be protected from viewing for competitive reasons. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability. Payment flows must all have some integrity protection and consistent availability to prohibit forgery and instill confidence in the payment process. Repurcussions of roadway payment are individually fairly small, collectiviely significant but probably never catastrophic. Thus MODERATE for both integrity and availability.
Payment Administration Center Other Payment Administration Centers toll coordination Moderate Moderate Moderate
Will include payment information, at least account IDs and road use instances if not times and actual charges. If observed, could be used to track individuals or compromise payment mechanisms. If modified or corrupted could lead to incorrect charges, either to the wrong account, no account or differing amounts. Left at MODERATE because the impact should be limited to individual or at least a small number of accounts. Availability will depend on the number of cross-use interactions and the scheme for sharing charges. Generally consider this to be an operational near-real time flow, so MODERATE. If strictly batched then LOW may be more appopriate.
Payment Administration Center Payment Administrator payment information presentation Moderate High High
Individual payment change requests are unlikely to have any significant systematic impact, but may contain PII and should thus be eyes-only for the operator. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system.
Payment Administration Center Personal Information Device registered secureIDs High High Moderate
These IDs are used to secure individual user's rights to use transportation assets. Compromising one of these would be a significant inconvenience but only for the user of that secureID. However, compromise of the algorithm securing all IDs would be catastrophic to the system that uses this mechanism as a means to pay for transportation services. Individual tokens should be correct or the user will not be able to use this method to pay for transport. A systemic integrity flaw would compromise the system similar to how an encryption flaw would however, which justifies HIGH. Should be relatively infrequently used by any one user, but over the sum of all transport users sees significant use. If the flow is not available, new or re-applying users will not be able to use this method to pay for transport.
Payment Administration Center Personal Information Device user account reports High High Moderate
Contains user identification and transaction history, which if compromised could lead to identity or financial theft. Payment history information, if corrupted, could lead the user to take action he or she should not take. If intercepted by a malicious actor, this could be manipulated to trick the user into taking action not in his own best interest. There should be other mechanisms to retrieve this information, but if the flow has low reliability users will lose confidence and not use it. MODERATE for that reason only.
Payment Administration Center Traffic Management Center toll probe data Low Moderate Low
As this is aggregate information that will be used for a public information product, there is little reason to conceal it. This will eventually drive decisions made by travelers, so it does deserve some protection. If modified or corrupted, may lead to decisions wasting time and money. There are many sources of traffic data, it is unlikely that this is the only one. While loss of this flow would degrade overall travel time quality, it would not eliminate that metric and would have a widespread but minor effect.
Payment Administration Center Transportation Information Center toll data Low Moderate Low
Should be public information, little benefit to obscuring this information. Since actors may use this information to plan their travels, it must be correct. Corruption or manipulation of this data may lead them to make suboptimal decisions, costing time and/or money. This flow probably does not update often. The information within is distributed via many routes.
Payment Administration Center Transportation Information Center toll probe data Low Moderate Low
As this is aggregate information that will be used for a public information product, there is little reason to conceal it. This will eventually drive decisions made by travelers, so it does deserve some protection. If modified or corrupted, may lead to decisions wasting time and money. There are many sources of traffic data, it is unlikely that this is the only one. While loss of this flow would degrade overall travel time quality, it would not eliminate that metric and would have a widespread but minor effect.
Payment Administration Center Vehicle OBE registered secureIDs High High Moderate
These IDs are used to secure individual user's rights to use transportation assets. Compromising one of these would be a significant inconvenience but only for the user of that secureID. However, compromise of the algorithm securing all IDs would be catastrophic to the system that uses this mechanism as a means to pay for transportation services. Individual tokens should be correct or the user will not be able to use this method to pay for transport. A systemic integrity flaw would compromise the system similar to how an encryption flaw would however, which justifies HIGH. Should be relatively infrequently used by any one user, but over the sum of all transport users sees significant use. If the flow is not available, new or re-applying users will not be able to use this method to pay for transport.
Payment Administrator Payment Administration Center payment administration requests Moderate High High
Individual payment change requests are unlikely to have any significant systematic impact, but may contain PII and should thus be eyes-only for the operator. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system.
Payment Device Vehicle OBE actuate secure payment Moderate Moderate High
Contains an identifier linked to an individual or specific device, and thus PII by definition. Compromise of one secureID would likely impact only one user, but the nature of this flow requires that the same algorithm be used for every user; algorithm compromise would harm every user, which would have widespread impact. Payment related information needs to be correct or the user may be inconvenienced or defrauded. Contact/proximity payment mechanisms need to be very reliable or large numbers of users will be inconvenienced and the systems that use these interfaces (transit, parking etc.) will be hamstrung by interface failures.
Personal Information Device Payment Administration Center user account setup High High Moderate
Contains user identification and matching vehicle information, which if compromised could lead to identity theft or remote tracking. Payment setup information, if corrupted, could lead the user to not properly pay for his trips or perhaps pay for others. If intercepted by a malicious actor, this could be manipulated to trick the user into taking action not in his own best interest. There should be other mechanisms to provide this information, but if the flow has low reliability users will lose confidence and not use it. MODERATE for that reason only.
Transportation Information Center Fleet and Freight Management Center toll data Low Moderate Low
Should be public information, little benefit to obscuring this information. Since actors may use this information to plan their travels, it must be correct. Corruption or manipulation of this data may lead them to make suboptimal decisions, costing time and/or money. This flow probably does not update often. The information within is distributed via many routes.
Transportation Information Center Payment Administration Center toll data request Moderate Moderate Moderate
Likely includes an identifier linking to a subscription, account or other unique information that belongs to an individual or corporate entity. Compromise of this identifier could be used to cause financial harm to its owner. Since this includes some kind of identifier that is linked to an account or payment mechanism, it must be correct or the resulting charges may fail or be assigned to the wrong account, causing financial harm to someone. Is not part of the real-time on-road charging, but will be frequently used and impact a large number of users if not available.
Vehicle OBE Driver driver updates Not Applicable Moderate Moderate
This data is informing the driver about the safety of a nearby area. It should not contain anything sensitive, and does not matter if another person can observe it. This is the information that is presented to the driver. If they receive incorrect information, they may act in an unsafe manner. However, there are other indicators that would alert them to any hazards, such as an oncoming vehicle or crossing safety lights. If this information is not made available to the driver, then the system has not operated correctly.
Vehicle OBE ITS Roadway Payment Equipment actuate secure payment Moderate Moderate High
Contains an identifier linked to an individual or specific device, and thus PII by definition. Compromise of one secureID would likely impact only one user, but the nature of this flow requires that the same algorithm be used for every user; algorithm compromise would harm every user, which would have widespread impact. Payment related information needs to be correct or the user may be inconvenienced or defrauded. Contact/proximity payment mechanisms need to be very reliable or large numbers of users will be inconvenienced and the systems that use these interfaces (transit, parking etc.) will be hamstrung by interface failures.
Vehicle OBE Payment Administration Center user account setup High High Moderate
Contains user identification and transaction history, which if compromised could lead to identity or financial theft. Payment setup information, if corrupted, could lead the user to not properly pay for his trips or perhaps pay for others. If intercepted by a malicious actor, this could be manipulated to trick the user into taking action not in his own best interest. These exchanges can be delayed but eventually have to go through or accounts will not be properly updated, mostly impacting revenue collection.
Vehicle OBE Payment Device payment device update Moderate Moderate High
Contains charges and possibly balance or personal information. Charge information may or may not be public, and balance and personal information is not, though it may be displayed visually. Could be LOW if no personal or balance information and no identifier is not included in the flow. Payment related information needs to be correct or the user may be inconvenienced or defrauded. Contact/proximity payment mechanisms need to be very reliable or large numbers of users will be inconvenienced and the systems that use these interfaces (transit, parking etc.) will be hamstrung by interface failures.
Vehicle OBE Payment Device request for payment Moderate Moderate High
Contains charges and possibly balance or personal information. Charge information may or may not be public, and balance and personal information is not, though it may be displayed visually. Could be LOW if no personal or balance information and no identifier is not included in the flow. Payment related information needs to be correct or the user may be inconvenienced or defrauded. Contact/proximity payment mechanisms need to be very reliable or large numbers of users will be inconvenienced and the systems that use these interfaces (transit, parking etc.) will be hamstrung by interface failures.

Standards

The following table lists the standards associated with physical objects in this service package. For standards related to interfaces, see the specific information flow triple pages.

Name Title Physical Object
NEMA TS 8 Cyber and Physical Security Cyber and Physical Security for Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS Roadway Payment Equipment
Payment Administration Center