Improve the efficiency of the surface transportation system

Each of the goals in a metropolitan or statewide transportation plan is supported by one or more 'objectives' that define what needs to occur to accomplish the goal. The objectives define what a region plans to achieve and help to determine the strategies and investments that will be included in the transportation plan. In practice, objectives range from high-level regional statements to specific, measurable, time-bound "SMART" objectives. A range of objectives are included in the Architecture Reference for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation (ARC-IT), gathered from a variety of references and recent transportation plans, that reflect the spectrum of objectives that are used in current practice. The objectives identified below support the identified goal. Select an objective to identify its source, associated performance measures, and the service packages that support the objective.

Objective Category Objective
Arterial Management: Delay Decrease the seconds of control delay per vehicles on arterial roads by X percent in Y years. (Control delay is defined as the portion of the total delay attributed to traffic signal operation for signalized intersections).
Arterial Management: Delay Increase the miles of arterials in the region operating at level of service (LOS) Z by X percent in Y years.
Arterial Management: Reliability Reduce buffer index on arterials during peak and off-peak periods by X percent in Y years.
Arterial Management: Reliability Reduce delay associated with incidents on arterials by X percent by year Y.
Arterial Management: Traffic Monitoring and Data Collection Field data collection is conducted either through floating car studies or other methods at least once every Y years on major signalized arterials and X years on minor signalized arterials.
Arterial Management: Traffic Monitoring and Data Collection X percent of intersections in the region are equipped and operating with traffic signals that enable real-time monitoring and management of traffic flows by year Y.
Arterial Management: Traffic Monitoring and Data Collection X percent of major and minor arterials are equipped and operating with arterial link traffic data detection stations (appropriate technology) per Z distance by year Y.
Arterial Management: Traffic Monitoring and Data Collection X percent of major and minor arterials are equipped and operating with closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras per Z distance by year Y.
Arterial Management: Traffic Signal Management Crash data for all arterials in the region is reviewed every X years to determine if signal adjustments can be made to address a safety issue.
Arterial Management: Traffic Signal Management Increase the number of intersections running in a coordinated, closed-loop, or adaptive system by X percent in Y years.
Arterial Management: Traffic Signal Management Maintain a program of evaluating X percent of signals for retiming every Y years.
Arterial Management: Traffic Signal Management Special timing plans are available for use during freeway incidents, roadway construction activities, or other special events for X miles of arterials in the region by year Y.
Emergency/Incident Management: Customer Satisfaction Increase customer satisfaction with the region's incident management by X percent over Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Inter-Agency Coordination At least X percent of transportation operating agencies have a plan in place for a representative to be at the local or State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to coordinate strategic activities and response planning for transportation during emergencies by year Y.
Emergency/Incident Management: Inter-Agency Coordination Hold at least X multi-agency after-action review meetings each year with attendance from at least Y percent of the agencies involved in the incident's response.
Emergency/Incident Management: Inter-Agency Coordination Increase percentage of incident management agencies in the region that (participate in a multi-modal information exchange network, use interoperable voice communications, participate in a regional coordinated incident response team, etc.) by X percent in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Inter-Agency Coordination Increase the number of corridors in the region covered by regional coordinated incident response teams by X percent in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Person Hours of Delay Reduce the person hours (or vehicle hours) of total delay associated with traffic incidents by X percent over Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Training By Y (year), X percent of staff in region with incident management responsibilities will have completed the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Training and at least X percent of transportation responders in the region are familiar with the incident command structure (ICS).
Emergency/Incident Management: Traveler Information Increase number of repeat visitors to traveler information website (or 511 system) by X percent in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Traveler Information Reduce the time between recovery from incident and removal of traveler alerts for that incident.
Emergency/Incident Management: Traveler Information Reduce time between incident/emergency verification and posting a traveler alert to traveler information outlets (e.g., variable message signs, agency website, 511 system) by X minutes in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Use of Technology Increase number of ITS-related assets (e.g., roadside cameras, dynamic message signs, vehicle speed detectors) in use for incident and emergency detection by X in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Use of Technology Increase number of regional road miles covered by ITS-related assets (e.g., roadside cameras, dynamic message signs, vehicle speed detectors) in use for incident detection by X percent in Y years.
Emergency/Incident Management: Use of Technology Increase number of traffic signals equipped with emergency vehicle preemption by X percent in Y years.
Freeway Management: Efficiency Reduce the number of person hours (or vehicle hours) of delay experienced by travelers on the freeway system.
Freeway Management: Efficiency Reduce the share of freeway miles at Level of Service (LOS) X by Y by year Z.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Ensure that all HOV lanes carry a throughput of at least Y persons per hour.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Ensure that all HOV lanes operate at no less than 50 mph during their hours of operation.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Ensure that all HOV lanes operate with a volume of at least X vehicles per hour.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Increase the average vehicle occupancy rate in HOV lanes to X by year Y.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Increase the compliance rate for HOV lanes to X by year Y.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Increase the number of HOV lane miles from X to Y by year Z.
Freeway Management: HOV Lanes Provide options for reliable travel times for carpools and transit on at least X percent of the freeway network by year Y.
Freeway Management: Managed Lanes Ensure that all managed lanes (e.g., HOV lanes, HOT lanes) carry a throughput of at least Y persons per hour.
Freeway Management: Managed Lanes Ensure that all managed lanes (e.g., HOV lanes, HOT lanes) operate at no less than 50 mph during their hours of operation.
Freeway Management: Managed Lanes Ensure that all managed lanes (e.g., HOV lanes, HOT lanes) operate with a volume of at least X vehicles per hour.
Freeway Management: Managed Lanes Increase the miles of managed lanes in the region from X to Y by year Z.
Freeway Management: Managed Lanes Provide options for reliable travel times for certain types of travel (e.g., transit, carpools, trucks, etc.) on at least X percent of the freeway network by year Y.
Freeway Management: Pricing and Tolling Increase the percentage of users carrying electronic toll collection (ETC) transponders by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Pricing and Tolling Increase the share of freeways that are priced to X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Pricing and Tolling Increase the share of toll roadways and bridges that are using variable pricing (e.g., congestion pricing) to X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Ramp Management Increase the number freeway ramps currently metered by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Ramp Management Increase the percent of freeway interchanges operating at LOS Z or higher during peak periods by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Ramp Management Reduce the number of congestion-inducing incidents occurring at freeway ramps by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Reliability Reduce buffer index on the freeway system during peak and off-peak periods by X percent in Y years.
Freeway Management: Reliability Reduce delay associated with incidents on the freeway system by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Transportation Management Centers Increase the hours of TMC operation and level of staffing by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Transportation Management Centers Increase the level of transportation management center (TMC) field hardware (cameras, variable message signs, electronic toll tag readers, ITS applications, etc.) by X percent by year Y.
Freeway Management: Transportation Management Centers Increase the percent of regional transportation system monitored by the TMC for real-time performance.
Special Event Management: Entry/Exit Travel Times Reduce average time to clear event's exiting queue by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Entry/Exit Travel Times Reduce average travel time into and out of the event by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Entry/Exit Travel Times Reduce buffer time index for travelers to multiple similar special events by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Entry/Exit Travel Times Reduce non-special event VMT in the event area during events by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Multi-Agency Coordination and Training Increase the number of agencies with special event management responsibilities that use interoperable communications by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Multi-Agency Coordination and Training Increase the percentage of special event stakeholder agencies participating in a regional event management team to X percent by year Y.
Special Event Management: Parking Management Decrease the time spent clearing special event venue parking lots of vehicles by X percent in Y years following each event.
Special Event Management: Parking Management Enhance parking facility services and management
Special Event Management: Parking Management Increase on-street parking restrictions on X percent of widely used routes during special events in Y years.
Special Event Management: Parking Management Increase the number of special events that use shared parking facilities (e.g., parking lots of nearby businesses or organizations) by X percent in Y years.
Special Event Management: Parking Management Increase the use of flexible pricing mechanisms near special event locations on X percent of parking spaces in Y years.
Special Event Management: Traveler Information Increase the methods of effectively disseminating special event information to travelers by X percent in Y years (e.g., media releases, highway advisory radio, dynamic message signs, commercial AM and FM radio).
Special Event Management: Traveler Information Increase the percentage of planned special events (with attendance above Z) with information on anticipated and actual travel conditions being disseminated to the traveling public at least X hours prior to the event.
Special Event Management: Use of Technology Implement special event traffic signal timing plans at X percent of major special events each year beginning in year Y.
Special Event Management: Use of Technology Increase the percent of major special events using ITS-related assets (e.g., roadside cameras, dynamic message signs, vehicle speed detectors) to detect and manage special event entry/exit bottlenecks and incidents by X percent in Y years.
System Efficiency: Cost of Congestion Reduce the annual monetary cost of congestion per capita for the next X years.
System Efficiency: Delay Reduce hours of delay per capita by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Delay Reduce hours of delay per driver by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Duration of Congestion Reduce the daily hours of recurring congestion on major freeways from X to Y by year Z.
System Efficiency: Duration of Congestion Reduce the number of hours per day that the top 20 most congested roadways experience recurring congestion by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Extent of Congestion Maintain the rate of growth in facility miles experiencing recurring congestion as less than the population growth rate (or employment growth rate).
System Efficiency: Extent of Congestion Reduce the percentage of facility miles (highway, arterial, rail, etc.) experiencing recurring congestion during the peak period by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Extent of Congestion Reduce the share of major intersections operating at LOS Z by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Intensity of Congestion (Travel Time Index) Reduce the regional average travel time index by X percent per year.
System Efficiency: Travel Time Annual rate of change in regional average commute travel time will not exceed regional rate of population growth through the year Y.
System Efficiency: Travel Time Improve average travel time during peak periods by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Trip Connectivity Reduce cost of transfer fees paid by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Trip Connectivity Reduce door-to-door trip time by X percent by year Y.
System Efficiency: Vehicle Miles Traveled Reduce vehicle miles traveled per capita by X percent by year Y.
System Reliability: Non-Recurring Delay Reduce total person hours of delay (or travel-time delay per capita) by time period (peak, off-peak) caused by all transient events such as traffic incidents, special events, and work zones.
System Reliability: Non-Recurring Delay Reduce total person hours of delay (or travel-time delay per capita) by time period (peak, off-peak) caused by scheduled events, work zones, or system maintenance by x hours in y years.
System Reliability: Non-Recurring Delay Reduce total person hours of delay (or travel-time delay per capita) by time period (peak, off-peak) caused by unscheduled disruptions to travel.
System Reliability: Planning Time Index Reduce the average planning time for (specific routes in region) by X minutes over the next Y years.
System Reliability: Planning Time Index Reduce the average planning time index for (specific routes in region) by X (no units) over the next Y years.
System Reliability: Transit On-Time Performance Improve average on-time performance for specified transit routes/facilities by X percent within Y years.
System Reliability: Travel Time 90th/95th Percentile Reduce the 90th (or 95th) percentile travel times for each route selected by X percent over Y years.
System Reliability: Travel Time 90th/95th Percentile Reduce the average of the 90th (or 95th) percentile travel times for (a group of specific travel routes or trips in the region) by X minutes in Y years.
System Reliability: Travel Time Buffer Index Decrease the average buffer index for (multiple routes or trips) by X percent over Y years.
System Reliability: Travel Time Buffer Index Decrease the buffer index for (specific travel routes) by X percent over the next Y years.
System Reliability: Travel Time Buffer Index Reduce the average buffer time needed to arrive on-time for 95 percent of trips on (specified routes) by X minutes over Y years.
System Reliability: Variability Reduce the variability of travel time on specified routes by X percent during peak and off-peak periods by year Y.
Transit Operations and Management: Automated Fare Collection Implement an automated fare collection system in Y years for X percent of transit providers in the region.
Transit Operations and Management: Automated Fare Collection Increase by X percentage points, every Y years, the percent of transfers performed with automated fare cards.
Transit Operations and Management: Automated Fare Collection Increase use of system by X percent per year.
Transit Operations and Management: Automated Fare Collection Integrate X additional modes/services into automated fare collection system by Y years.
Transit Operations and Management: Line-Haul Transit Improve average on-time performance for specified line-haul transit routes by X percent annually.
Transit Operations and Management: Line-Haul Transit Improve average travel speeds by X percent for specified line-haul transit routes every Y years.
Transit Operations and Management: Line-Haul Transit Provide line-haul transit travel times equal to or less than average auto travel times on same corridors/parallel corridors for X number of routes over Y years.
Transit Operations and Management: Loading Standards Load factors for (route type) routes at each route's busiest point should not exceed X on any vehicle (or on the average vehicle) during peak/off-peak periods.
Transit Operations and Management: Loading Standards No more than X standees should be present at each route's busiest point on any vehicle (or on the average vehicle) during peak/off-peak periods.
Transit Operations and Management: Loading Standards No passenger will have to stand for more than X minutes during their journey.
Transit Operations and Management: Loading Standards Passenger loads on (route type) routes at each route's busiest point should not exceed X passengers on any vehicle (or on average) during the hour during peak/off-peak periods
Transit Operations and Management: Park-and-Ride Support Increase pedestrian and bicycle access to park-and-ride lots by X percent within Y years.
Transit Operations and Management: Park-and-Ride Support Increase the number of automobile and bicycle spaces by X percent within Y years for lots currently experiencing X percent utilization.
Transit Operations and Management: Park-and-Ride Support Increase traveler awareness of park-and-ride lots by X percent within Y years.
Transit Operations and Management: Service Directness At least X percent of trips can be made with no more than Y transfers.
Transit Operations and Management: Service Directness Scheduled transfer times between routes should be no longer than X minutes.
Transit Operations and Management: Transit Signal Priority Decrease delay by X percent per year by increasing the use of queue jumping and automated vehicle location.
Transit Operations and Management: Transit Signal Priority Decrease system-wide signal delay on transit routes by X percent per year.
Transit Operations and Management: Transit Signal Priority Increase implementation of transit signal priority strategies on X number of routes (or X number of intersections) over the next Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Auto Commuter Trip Reduction Programs Increase the percentage of major employers (employers with at least Z employees) actively participating in transportation demand management programs by X percent within Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Auto Commuter Trip Reduction Programs Reduce commuter vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per regional job by X percent in Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool Create and share regional carpool/vanpool database with Z number of employers per year.
Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool Increase the number of carpools by X percent over the next Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool Increase use of vanpools by X percent over the next Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool Provide carpool/vanpool matching and ridesharing information services by year Y.
Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool Reduce trips per year in region by X percent through carpools/vanpools.
Travel Demand Management: Marketing Construct visitor information centers in X communities by year Y.
Travel Demand Management: Marketing Create a transportation access guide, which provides concise directions to reach destinations by alternative modes (transit, walking, bike, etc.) by year Y.
Travel Demand Management: Marketing Develop and enhance (e.g., through ease of navigation techniques) X number of web-based traveler information tools.
Travel Demand Management: Marketing Develop and provide travel option services to X identified communities and audiences within Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Biannually increase preferred parking spaces for carpool/vanpool participants within downtown, at special events, and among major employers by X percent within Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Implement parking pricing for X communities every Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Implement shared parking for X communities every Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Increase park-and-ride lot capacity by X percent over Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Increase the number of residents/commuters receiving information on parking pricing and availability within Y years.
Travel Demand Management: Parking Management Install parking meters along X corridors by year Y in the urban core/transit supportive areas.
Travel Demand Management: Walking/Bicycling Annually update bicycle/pedestrian map for accuracy.
Travel Demand Management: Walking/Bicycling Increase the number of available tools for travelers that incorporate a bicycle/pedestrian component by X percent by year Y.
Travel Demand Management: Walking/Bicycling Increase the number of travelers commuting via walking and/or bicycling by X percent over Y years.
Travel Weather Management: Clearance Time (Weather-Related Debris) Reduce average time to complete clearing (interstates, freeways, expressways, all roads, main tracks, and main sidewalks) of weather-related debris after weather impact by X percent in Y years.
Travel Weather Management: Clearance Time (Weather-Related Debris) Reduce average time to complete clearing (mode, hierarchy of facilities, or subarea of region) of weather-related debris after weather impact by X percent in Y years.
Travel Weather Management: Signal Timing Plans Special timing plans are available for use during inclement weather conditions for X miles of arterials in the region by year Y.
Traveler Information: Customer Satisfaction Increase customer satisfaction rating of the timeliness, accuracy, and usefulness of traveler information in the region by W, X, and Z percent, respectively, over Y years.
Traveler Information: Information Dissemination Increase number of 511 calls per year by X percent in Y years.
Traveler Information: Information Dissemination Increase number of users of notifications for traveler information (e.g., e-mail, text message) by X percent in Y years.
Traveler Information: Information Dissemination Increase number of visitors to traveler information website per year by X percent in Y years.
Traveler Information: Information Dissemination Increase number of Web 2.0 (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) followers by X percent in Y months.
Traveler Information: Information Dissemination Increase the accuracy and completeness of traveler information posted (on variable message signs, websites, and/or web 2.0 technologies) by reducing the number of incomplete and inaccurate reports by X percent in Y years.
Traveler Information: Trip Planning Tools Enhance regional multimodal trip planning tools to X data sources by year Y.
Traveler Information: Trip Planning Tools Increase the ease of use of trip planning tools by X percent by year Y.
Traveler Information: Trip Planning Tools Increase the number of uses of multimodal trip planning tools by X percent by year Y.
Work Zone Management: Construction Coordination Decrease the number of work zones on parallel routes/along the same corridor by X percent in Y years.
Work Zone Management: Construction Coordination Establish a work zone management system within X years to facilitate coordination of work zones in the region.
Work Zone Management: Construction Coordination Increase the number of capital projects reviewed for regional construction coordination by X percent in Y years.
Work Zone Management: Extent of Congestion Reduce the average and maximum length of queues, when present, by X percent over Y years.
Work Zone Management: Extent of Congestion Reduce the average time duration (in minutes) of queue length greater than some threshold (e.g., 0.5 mile) by X percent in Y years.
Work Zone Management: Extent of Congestion Reduce the percentage of vehicles traveling through work zones that are queued by X percent in Y years.
Work Zone Management: Travel Time Delay Increase the percentage of construction projects that employ night/ off-peak work zones by X percent in Y years.
Work Zone Management: Travel Time Delay Increase the rate of on-time completion of construction projects to X percent within Y years.
Work Zone Management: Travel Time Delay Reduce the person hours (or vehicle hours) of total delay associated with work zones by X percent over Y years.
Work Zone Management: Travel Time Reliability Reduce vehicle-hours of total delay in work zones caused by incidents (e.g., traffic crashes within or near the work zone).
Work Zone Management: Traveler Information Provide traveler information regarding work zones using variable message signs (VMS), 511, traveler information websites, and/or Web 2.0 technologies for at least X percent of work zones on major arterials, freeways, and transit routes over the next Y years.
Work Zone Management: Traveler Information Provide travelers with information on multimodal alternatives to avoid work zones for at least X percent of work zones on major arterials, freeways, and transit routes over the next Y years.
Work Zone Management: Traveler Information Provide work zone information (for upcoming and ongoing construction projects) to all impacted businesses or tenants of business centers with X employees or more by year Y.

Architecture Use

Like the goals, the transportation objectives of the region should be a driving input for the regional ITS architecture. By connecting the objectives with the architecture, transportation planners can easily identify the portion of the integrated regional transportation system that supports each objective. Conversely, ITS architectures and strategic plans can help planning organizations define operations objectives that reflect data that is available and the expertise of operations staff. The RAD-IT Planning Tab can be used to connect your region's objectives with your regional ITS architecture. If your regional ITS architecture does not include this connection, the links between the objectives and ARC-IT defined in this planning view may be used as a starting point.