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PT11: Transit Pedestrian Indication

The Transit Pedestrian Indication service package provides vehicle to device communications to inform pedestrians at a station or stop about the presence of a transit vehicle. In addition, this service package would inform the transit vehicle operator about the presence of pedestrians nearby and those waiting for the bus. It would help prevent collisions between transit vehicles and pedestrians.

Relevant Regions: Australia, Canada, European Union, and United States

Enterprise

Development Stage Roles and Relationships

Installation Stage Roles and Relationships

Operations Stage Roles and Relationships
(hide)

Source Destination Role/Relationship
Basic Transit Vehicle Manager Basic Transit Vehicle Manages
Basic Transit Vehicle Manager Transit Vehicle Operator System Usage Agreement
Basic Transit Vehicle Owner Basic Transit Vehicle Owns
Basic Transit Vehicle Owner Basic Transit Vehicle Manager Operations Agreement
Basic Transit Vehicle Owner Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Expectation of Data Provision
Basic Transit Vehicle Supplier Basic Transit Vehicle Owner Warranty
Personal Information Device Manager Personal Information Device Manages
Personal Information Device Manager Traveler System Usage Agreement
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Owns
Personal Information Device Owner Personal Information Device Manager Operations Agreement
Personal Information Device Supplier Personal Information Device Owner Warranty
Transit Vehicle OBE Manager Transit Vehicle OBE Manages
Transit Vehicle OBE Manager Transit Vehicle Operator System Usage Agreement
Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Transit Vehicle OBE Owns
Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Transit Vehicle OBE Manager Operations Agreement
Transit Vehicle OBE Supplier Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Warranty
Transit Vehicle Operator Basic Transit Vehicle Operates
Transit Vehicle Operator Transit Vehicle OBE Operates
Traveler Personal Information Device Operates

Maintenance Stage Roles and Relationships

Physical

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Includes Physical Objects:

Physical Object Class Description
Basic Transit Vehicle Vehicle The 'Basic Transit Vehicle' represents the transit vehicle that hosts the on-board equipment that provides ITS functions. It includes a specialized and extended databus that is subject to different vehicle databus standards and hosts a broad range of components that are unique to a transit vehicle including the farebox and associated electronics, passenger counters, and transit security systems. The Transit Vehicle may represent a bus, paratransit vehicle, light rail vehicle, or other vehicle designed to carry passengers.
Personal Information Device Personal The 'Personal Information Device' provides the capability for travelers to receive formatted traveler information wherever they are. Capabilities include traveler information, trip planning, and route guidance. Frequently a smart phone, the Personal Information Device provides travelers with the capability to receive route planning and other personally focused transportation services from the infrastructure in the field, at home, at work, or while en-route. Personal Information Devices may operate independently or may be linked with connected vehicle on-board equipment.
Transit Vehicle OBE Vehicle The Transit Vehicle On-Board equipment (OBE) resides in a transit vehicle and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient movement of passengers. The types of transit vehicles containing this physical object include buses, paratransit vehicles, light rail vehicles, other vehicles designed to carry passengers, and supervisory vehicles. It collects ridership levels and supports electronic fare collection. It supports a traffic signal prioritization function that communicates with the roadside physical object to improve on-schedule performance. Automated vehicle location enhances the information available to the transit operator enabling more efficient operations. On-board sensors support transit vehicle maintenance. The physical object supports on-board security and safety monitoring. This monitoring includes transit user or vehicle operator activated alarms (silent or audible), as well as surveillance and sensor equipment. The surveillance equipment includes video (e.g. CCTV cameras), audio systems and/or event recorder systems. It also furnishes travelers with real-time travel information, continuously updated schedules, transfer options, routes, and fares. A separate 'Vehicle OBE' physical object supports the general vehicle safety and driver information capabilities that apply to all vehicles, including transit vehicles. The Transit Vehicle OBE supplements these general capabilities with capabilities that are specific to transit vehicles.
Transit Vehicle Operator Vehicle The 'Transit Vehicle Operator' represents the person that receives and provides additional information that is specific to operating the ITS functions in all types of transit vehicles. The information received by the operator would include status of on-board systems. Additional information received depends upon the type of transit vehicle. In the case of fixed route transit vehicles, the Transit Vehicle Operator would receive operator instructions that might include actions to take to correct schedule deviations. In the case of flexible fixed routes and demand response routes the information would also include dynamic routing or passenger pickup information.
Traveler Personal The 'Traveler' represents any individual who uses transportation services. The interfaces to the traveler provide general pre-trip and en-route information supporting trip planning, personal guidance, and requests for assistance in an emergency that are relevant to all transportation system users. It also represents users of a public transportation system and addresses interfaces these users have within a transit vehicle or at transit facilities such as roadside stops and transit centers.

Includes Functional Objects:

Functional Object Description Physical Object
Personal Pedestrian Safety 'Personal Pedestrian Safety' improves pedestrian, cyclist, and other non-motorized user safety by providing personal location information to the infrastructure that can be used to avoid collisions involving non-motorized travelers. It may also alert the non-motorized user of unsafe conditions, augmenting or extending information provided by signals and signs. The information provided and the user interface delivery mechanism (visual, audible, or haptic) can also be tailored to the needs of the user that is carrying or wearing the device that hosts the application. Personal Information Device
Personal Trip Planning and Route Guidance 'Personal Trip Planning and Route Guidance' provides a personalized trip plan to the traveler. The trip plan is calculated based on preferences and constraints supplied by the traveler and provided to the traveler for confirmation. Coordination may continue during the trip so that the route plan can be modified to account for new information. Many equipment configurations are possible including systems that provide a basic trip plan to the traveler as well as more sophisticated systems that can provide transition by transition guidance to the traveler along a multi-modal route with transfers. Devices represented by this functional object include desktop computers at home, work, or at major trip generation sites, plus personal devices such as tablets and smart phones. Personal Information Device
Transit Vehicle On-Board Information Services 'Transit Vehicle On-board Information Services' furnishes en route transit users with real-time travel-related information on-board a transit vehicle. Current information that can be provided to transit users includes transit routes, schedules, transfer options, fares, real-time schedule adherence, current incidents, weather conditions, non-motorized transportation services, and special events are provided. In addition to tailored information for individual transit users, it also supports general annunciation and/or display of general schedule information, imminent arrival information, and other information of general interest to transit users. Transit Vehicle OBE
Transit Vehicle Pedestrian Safety 'Transit Vehicle Pedestrian Safety' exchanges current location and motion information with pedestrian-carried devices in the vicinity and uses that information to warn the driver of pedestrians in the vehicle's path. Information from on-board sensors (e.g., radars and image processing) are used to augment the short range communications, if available. In addition to notifying the driver, control information can also be provided to support automated control functions that can avoid the collision. Transit Vehicle OBE

Includes Information Flows:

Information Flow Description
host transit vehicle status Information provided to the ITS on-board equipment from other systems on the Transit Vehicle Platform.
personal location The current location (latitude, longitude, and elevation) reported by the personal information device
transit user information Information about individual transit users boarding a transit vehicle, used to track a user's progress on a scheduled transit trip.
transit vehicle information Information about the transit vehicle route and stops, including current location along the route and next stop.
transit vehicle operator display Visual, audible, and tactile outputs to the transit vehicle operator including vehicle surveillance information, alarm information, vehicle system status, information from the operations center, and information indicating the status of all other on-board ITS services.
transit vehicle operator input Transit vehicle operator inputs to on-board ITS equipment, including tactile and verbal inputs. Includes authentication information, on-board system control, emergency requests, and fare transaction data.
traveler input User input from a traveler to summon assistance, request travel information, make a reservation, or request any other traveler service.
traveler interface updates Visual or audio information (e.g., routes, messages, guidance, emergency information) that is provided to the traveler.
vehicle location and motion Data describing the vehicle's location in three dimensions, heading, speed, acceleration, braking status, and size.

Goals and Objectives

Associated Planning Factors and Goals

Planning Factor Goal
B. Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; Achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads
C. Increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; Improve the security of the transportation system
D. Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight; Achieve a significant reduction in congestion

Associated Objective Categories

Objective Category
Transit Operations and Management: Safety

Associated Objectives and Performance Measures

Objective Performance Measure
Decrease by X percent on an annual basis the number of complaints per 1,000 boarding passengers. Complaint rate.
Decrease the number of personal safety incidents by X percent within Y years. Number of reported personal safety incidents.
Increase personal safety ratings by X percent within Y years. Personal safety and customer service ratings.


 
Since the mapping between objectives and service packages is not always straight-forward and often situation-dependent, these mappings should only be used as a starting point. Users should do their own analysis to identify the best service packages for their region.

Needs and Requirements

Need Functional Object Requirement
01 Transit Vehicle Operators need to be aware of nearby pedestrians, including those who would like to board the transit vehicle in order to reduce the likelihood of pedestrian accidents with the transit vehicle. Personal Pedestrian Safety 01 The personal information device shall provide the current location (latitude, longitude, and elevation) of the non-motorized travelers.
03 The personal traveler interface shall provide traveler location information to transit vehicles.
04 The personal traveler interface shall provide to a transit vehicle the traveler's intent to board the transit vehicle including the transit stop at which the traveler would like to board.
05 The personal traveler interface shall provide the traveler with warnings about approaching vehicles.
06 The personal traveler interface shall provide the traveler with an indication that an approaching transit vehicle is the one they want to board based on their input trip itinerary.
Transit Vehicle On-Board Information Services 03 The transit vehicle shall support input and output forms that are suitable for travelers with physical disabilities.
06 The transit vehicle shall provide to the transit vehicle operator transit stop requests received from travelers or from the transit center.
Transit Vehicle Pedestrian Safety 01 The transit vehicle shall determine if pedestrians are near a transit vehicle.
02 The transit vehicle shall determine if pedestrians are at risk of crash due to proximity of transit vehicle.
03 The transit vehicle shall notify the Transit Vehicle Operator of pedestrians that are in a position that is likely to result in a collision with the transit vehicle.
04 The transit vehicle shall be able to collect pedestrian presence information from equipped personal devices.
05 The transit vehicle shall determine whether pedestrians are at transit stops.
06 The transit vehicle shall notify the Transit Vehicle Operator of the presence of pedestrians at a transit stop near to the transit vehicle.
02 Pedestrians need to know the proximity of a transit vehicle to a transit stop and whether the transit vehicle is the one they want to board (i.e., the correct route). Personal Trip Planning and Route Guidance 06 The personal traveler interface shall allow a traveler to send a stop request to an approaching transit vehicle.
Transit Vehicle On-Board Information Services 01 The transit vehicle shall enable traffic and travel advisory information to be requested and output to the traveler. Such information may include transit routes, schedules, transfer options, fares, real-time schedule adherence, current incidents, weather conditions, and special events.
02 The transit vehicle shall broadcast advisories about the imminent arrival of the transit vehicle at the next stop via an on-board automated annunciation system.
05 The transit vehicle shall tailor the output of the request traveler information based on the current location of the transit vehicle.
Transit Vehicle Pedestrian Safety 07 The transit vehicle shall send vehicle identification information to nearby equipped personal devices.
08 The transit vehicle shall determine when its position is near a transit station/stop.
09 The transit vehicle shall send an indication to nearby equipped personal devices when its position is near a transit station/stop.

Related Sources

Document Name Version Publication Date
ConOps for Transit Connected Vehicle Draft 3/31/2012


Security

In order to participate in this service package, each physical object should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Physical Object Security
Physical Object Confidentiality Integrity Availability Security Class
Basic Transit Vehicle  
Personal Information Device Moderate High Moderate Class 3
Transit Vehicle OBE Moderate High Moderate Class 3



In order to participate in this service package, each information flow triple should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Information Flow Security
Source Destination Information Flow Confidentiality Integrity Availability
Basis Basis Basis
Basic Transit Vehicle Transit Vehicle OBE host transit vehicle status Moderate Moderate Moderate
This can include some sensitive data. However, other data, such as vehicle location and motion will then be broadcast. There also may be proprietary information included in this. DISC THEA believes this to be LOW: "sensor data is not confidential; harm should not come from seeing status." This is used later on to determine whether a vehicle should request priority at an intersection. If this information is incorrect the vehicle may make false requests. All other flows that use the data from this flow have a MODERATE integrity requirement, therefore, this must also have a MODERATE integrity requirement. DISC: THEA believes this should be HIGH: "sensor data needs to be accurate and should not be tampered with." This information would need to be available immediately for the application to work.DISC: THEA believes this should be HIGH: "sensor data must be consistently available to feed BSMs broadcast at 10Hz, notifications, etc.."
Personal Information Device Transit Vehicle OBE personal location Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. It can also be determined via other visual indicators. An incorrect locations message, could lead to a false warning or lack of warning. A lack of warning can have obvious catastrophic consequences, while a false warning could lead to users ignoring warnings due to perceived inaccuracy. Given that this triple may apply to highly dynamic environments (such as work zones), its accuracy is paramount, and thus if sent, must have HIGH integrity. There are other visual indicators about the geofenced areas. PID users in dynamic environments (incident and work zones) should know when they are leaving a geofenced area. As long as they remain in the geofenced area, this information is not as necessary. Not all pedestrians will carry a personal information device, and the system should be able to operate without this information.
Personal Information Device Transit Vehicle OBE transit user information Moderate Moderate Moderate
May contain the PII of the originator, which should be readable only by the intended recepient lest the originator's privacy be violated. If the implementation does not provide traveler identity, this may be reduced to LOW. If this is compromised or corrupted, the user's needs may not be properly communicated or met. If this is forged, the transit provider may provide unnecessary services. If this is not available, the user may not receive transit services offered, and as with other transit services may ceases using the system. While the immediate impact is LOW, long term impact is MODERATE due to user confidence issues.
Personal Information Device Traveler traveler interface updates Not Applicable Moderate Moderate
Personalized data that includes directions and guidance for an individual, but eventually evident anyway. Should be accurate as the Traveler will be relying on this information for routing and related choices. Lack of accuracy will result in lack of confidence from the traveler as well as an unsatisfactory trip, leading to a negative feedback spiral. Users expect their devices to work. If information is not presented to the operator, the relevant applications simply won't be used.
Transit Vehicle OBE Personal Information Device transit vehicle information Low Moderate Moderate
Data is intended for public use. General transit schedule information, as well as more specific "next stop" and similar information should be prompt and correct or users will lose confidence and not use the system. Also inconvenienced by the lack of correct and timely information. Impact is localized and limited however, so MODERATE and not HIGH. General transit schedule information, as well as more specific "next stop" and similar information should be prompt and correct or users will lose confidence and not use the system. Also inconvenienced by the lack of correct and timely information. Impact is localized and limited however, so MODERATE and not HIGH.
Transit Vehicle OBE Personal Information Device vehicle location and motion Not Applicable High Moderate
This data is intentionally transmitted to everyone via a broadcast. Much of its information content can also be determined via other visual indicators False information here could lead to a false warning, or not receiving a warning when an infraction is about to occur. A few false warnings should not have a bad consequence. Has a significant safety impact if not delivered, but there are alternative mechanisms in most circumstances (most times a traveler is able to hear or see the bus)
Transit Vehicle OBE Transit Vehicle Operator transit vehicle operator display Low Moderate Low
This should not include any sensitive information. It would be possible for a person standing behind the driver to observe the information transmitted. Some minimal guarantee of data integrity is necessary for all C-ITS flows. This entire application should not directly affect the drivers driving habits. The operator should still be slowing and stopping at yellow or red lights, along with observing all other driving regulations. DISC: Original V2I analysis classified this as LOW. Even if the operator is not made aware of the signal preemption, the system should still operate correctly. The operator should be using the traffic lights to influence their decision about whether or not to stop, not the display.
Transit Vehicle Operator Transit Vehicle OBE transit vehicle operator input Low Moderate Low
This information is transmitted through systems on board the Transit Vehicle. Even if the vehicle were compromised and these communications monitored, most of this information is directly observable. Some minimal guarantee of data integrity is necessary for all C-ITS flows. If this is compromised, it could result in an incorrect signal priority request, which has minimal impact. DISC: Original V2I analysis classified this as LOW. A delay in reporting this may result in a signal priority request not going through, which has minimal impact.
Traveler Personal Information Device traveler input Not Applicable Moderate Low
This data is informing the vehicle of operational information that is relevant to the operation of the vehicle. It should not contain anything sensitive, and does not matter if another person can observe it. While public, information must be correct or travelers may make incorrect decisions with regard to their travel plans. Information is available through other means, though depending on the location this might not always be the case, in which case this would be MODERATE.

Standards

Currently, there are no standards associated with the physical objects in this service package. For standards related to interfaces, see the specific information flow triple pages.