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PT01: Transit Vehicle Tracking

This service package monitors current transit vehicle location using an Automated Vehicle Location System. The location data may be used to determine real time schedule adherence and update the transit system's schedule in real-time.

Relevant Regions: Australia, Canada, European Union, and United States

Enterprise

Development Stage Roles and Relationships

Installation Stage Roles and Relationships

Operations Stage Roles and Relationships
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Source Destination Role/Relationship
Location and Time Data Source Manager Location and Time Data Source Manages
Location and Time Data Source Owner Location and Time Data Source Owns
Location and Time Data Source Owner Location and Time Data Source Manager Operations Agreement
Location and Time Data Source Supplier Location and Time Data Source Owner Warranty
Traffic Management Center Manager Traffic Management Center Manages
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owns
Traffic Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Traffic Management Center Supplier Traffic Management Center Owner Warranty
Transit Management Center Manager Transit Management Center Manages
Transit Management Center Manager Transit Operations Personnel System Usage Agreement
Transit Management Center Owner Traffic Management Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Transit Management Center Owner Transit Management Center Owns
Transit Management Center Owner Transit Management Center Manager Operations Agreement
Transit Management Center Owner Transportation Information Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Transit Management Center Supplier Transit Management Center Owner Warranty
Transit Operations Personnel Transit Management Center Operates
Transit Vehicle OBE Manager Transit Vehicle OBE Manages
Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Transit Management Center Owner Information Provision Agreement
Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Transit Vehicle OBE Owns
Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Transit Vehicle OBE Manager Operations Agreement
Transit Vehicle OBE Supplier Transit Vehicle OBE Owner Warranty
Transportation Information Center Manager Transportation Information Center Manages
Transportation Information Center Owner Transportation Information Center Owns
Transportation Information Center Owner Transportation Information Center Manager Operations Agreement
Transportation Information Center Supplier Transportation Information Center Owner Warranty

Maintenance Stage Roles and Relationships

Physical

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Includes Physical Objects:

Physical Object Class Description
Location and Time Data Source ITS The 'Location and Time Data Source' provides accurate position information. While a Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver is the most common implementation, this physical object represents any technology that provides a position fix in three dimensions and time with sufficient accuracy.
Traffic Management Center Center The 'Traffic Management Center' monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centers that manage a broad range of transportation facilities including freeway systems, rural and suburban highway systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems. It communicates with ITS Roadway Equipment and Connected Vehicle Roadside Equipment (RSE) to monitor and manage traffic flow and monitor the condition of the roadway, surrounding environmental conditions, and field equipment status. It manages traffic and transportation resources to support allied agencies in responding to, and recovering from, incidents ranging from minor traffic incidents through major disasters.
Transit Management Center Center The 'Transit Management Center' manages transit vehicle fleets and coordinates with other modes and transportation services. It provides operations, maintenance, customer information, planning and management functions for the transit property. It spans distinct central dispatch and garage management systems and supports the spectrum of fixed route, flexible route, paratransit services, transit rail, and bus rapid transit (BRT) service. The physical object's interfaces support communication between transit departments and with other operating entities such as emergency response services and traffic management systems.
Transit Operations Personnel Center 'Transit Operations Personnel' represents the people that are responsible for fleet management, maintenance operations, and scheduling activities of the transit system. These different roles represent a variety of individuals in the transit industry. Within the transit industry the person responsible for fleet management is known by many names: Street Supervisor, Starter, Dispatcher, Supervisor, Traffic Controller, Transportation Coordinator. This person actively monitors, controls, and modifies the transit fleet routes and schedules on a day to day basis (dynamic scheduling). The modifications will take account of abnormal situations such as vehicle breakdown, vehicle delay, detours around work zones or incidents (detour management, connection protection, and service restoration), and other causes of route or schedule deviations. Transit operations personnel are also responsible for demand responsive transit operation and for managing emergency situations within the transit network such as silent alarms on board transit vehicles, or the remote disabling of the vehicle. In addition the Transit Operations Personnel may be responsible for assigning vehicle operators to routes, checking vehicle operators in and out, and managing transit stop issues. This object also represents the personnel in the transit garage that are responsible for maintenance of the transit fleets, including monitoring vehicle status, matching vehicles with operators, and maintenance checking of transit vehicles. Finally, it represents the people responsible for planning, development, and management of transit routes and schedules.
Transit Vehicle OBE Vehicle The Transit Vehicle On-Board equipment (OBE) resides in a transit vehicle and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient movement of passengers. The types of transit vehicles containing this physical object include buses, paratransit vehicles, light rail vehicles, other vehicles designed to carry passengers, and supervisory vehicles. It collects ridership levels and supports electronic fare collection. It supports a traffic signal prioritization function that communicates with the roadside physical object to improve on-schedule performance. Automated vehicle location enhances the information available to the transit operator enabling more efficient operations. On-board sensors support transit vehicle maintenance. The physical object supports on-board security and safety monitoring. This monitoring includes transit user or vehicle operator activated alarms (silent or audible), as well as surveillance and sensor equipment. The surveillance equipment includes video (e.g. CCTV cameras), audio systems and/or event recorder systems. It also furnishes travelers with real-time travel information, continuously updated schedules, transfer options, routes, and fares. A separate 'Vehicle OBE' physical object supports the general vehicle safety and driver information capabilities that apply to all vehicles, including transit vehicles. The Transit Vehicle OBE supplements these general capabilities with capabilities that are specific to transit vehicles.
Transportation Information Center Center The 'Transportation Information Center' collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and the traveling public. The physical object can play several different roles in an integrated ITS. In one role, the TIC provides a data collection, fusing, and repackaging function, collecting information from transportation system operators and redistributing this information to other system operators in the region and other TICs. In this information redistribution role, the TIC provides a bridge between the various transportation systems that produce the information and the other TICs and their subscribers that use the information. The second role of a TIC is focused on delivery of traveler information to subscribers and the public at large. Information provided includes basic advisories, traffic and road conditions, transit schedule information, yellow pages information, ride matching information, and parking information. The TIC is commonly implemented as a website or a web-based application service, but it represents any traveler information distribution service.

Includes Functional Objects:

Functional Object Description Physical Object
Transit Center Vehicle Tracking 'Transit Center Vehicle Tracking' monitors transit vehicle location. The location information is collected via a data communication link between the transit vehicles and the transit center. The location information is presented to the transit operator on a digitized map of the transit service area. The location data may be used to determine real time schedule adherence and update the transit system's schedule in real-time. The real-time schedule information is disseminated to other information providers, which furnish the information to travelers. Transit Management Center
Transit Vehicle On-Board Trip Monitoring 'Transit Vehicle On-Board Trip Monitoring' tracks vehicle location, monitors fuel usage, collects operational status (doors opened/closed, running times, etc.) and sends the collected, time stamped data to the Transit Management Center. Transit Vehicle OBE

Includes Information Flows:

Information Flow Description
location and time The current geographic location in three dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation) and the current time.
transit operations personnel input User input from transit operations personnel including instructions governing service availability, schedules, emergency response plans, transit personnel assignments, transit maintenance requirements, and other inputs that establish general system operating requirements and procedures.
transit operations status Presentation of information to transit operations personnel including accumulated schedule and fare information, ridership and on-time performance information, emergency response plans, transit personnel information, maintenance records, and other information intended to support overall planning and management of a transit property.
transit probe data Aggregate probe data derived from tracking transit vehicles. Data collected could include transit vehicle speeds and travel times for a given link or collection of links.
transit schedule adherence information Dynamic transit schedule adherence and transit vehicle location information.
transit vehicle location data Current transit vehicle location and related operational conditions data provided by a transit vehicle.
transit vehicle schedule performance Estimated times of arrival and anticipated schedule deviations reported by a transit vehicle.

Goals and Objectives

Associated Planning Factors and Goals

Planning Factor Goal
D. Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight; Achieve a significant reduction in congestion
F. Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight; Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system
G. Promote efficient system management and operation; Improve the efficiency of the surface transportation system
J. Enhance travel and tourism. Develop a transportation system that supports travel and tourism

Associated Objective Categories

Objective Category
Transit Operations and Management: Transit Signal Priority
Traveler Information: Data Collection and Sharing on Travel Conditions

Associated Objectives and Performance Measures

Objective Performance Measure
Decrease delay by X percent per year by increasing the use of queue jumping and automated vehicle location. Travel time delay on routes with queue jumping and automated vehicle location in use.
Increase the percent of modes in the region that share their traveler information with other modes in the region to 100 percent by Y year. Percent of modes in the region that share their traveler information with other modes.
Increase the percent of transportation facilities whose owners share their traveler information with other agencies in the region to X percent by Y year. Percent of transportation facilities whose owners share their traveler information with other agencies in the region.


 
Since the mapping between objectives and service packages is not always straight-forward and often situation-dependent, these mappings should only be used as a starting point. Users should do their own analysis to identify the best service packages for their region.

Needs and Requirements

Need Functional Object Requirement
01 Transit Operations needs to be able to monitor the location of transit vehicles in order to improve decision making by transit operators and provide more accurate information to travelers . Transit Center Vehicle Tracking 01 The center shall monitor the locations of all transit vehicles within its network.
Transit Vehicle On-Board Trip Monitoring 01 The transit vehicle shall track the current location of the transit vehicle.
02 The transit vehicle shall support the computation of the location of a transit vehicle using on-board sensors to augment the location determination function. This may include proximity to the transit stops or other known reference points as well as recording trip length.
03 The transit vehicle shall record transit trip monitoring data including vehicle mileage and fuel usage.
02 Transit Operations needs to be able to determine whether each transit vehicle is adhering to its schedule. Transit Center Vehicle Tracking 02 The center shall determine adherence of transit vehicles to their assigned schedule.
Transit Vehicle On-Board Trip Monitoring 04 The transit vehicle shall record transit trip monitoring data including operational status information such as doors open/closed, running times, etc.
05 The transit vehicle shall send the transit vehicle trip monitoring data to center-based trip monitoring functions.
03 Transit Operations needs to be able to send transit vehicle location and schedule adherence data to other centers in order to support traveler information and traffic operations. Transit Center Vehicle Tracking 03 The center shall provide transit operational data to traveler information service providers.
04 The center shall provide collected transit probe data to traffic management centers and traveler information service providers for use in measuring current traffic conditions.

Related Sources

Document Name Version Publication Date
ITS User Services Document 1/1/2005


Security

In order to participate in this service package, each physical object should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Physical Object Security
Physical Object Confidentiality Integrity Availability Security Class
Location and Time Data Source Moderate High High Class 5
Traffic Management Center Low Low Low Class 1
Transit Management Center Moderate Moderate Moderate Class 2
Transit Vehicle OBE Moderate Moderate High Class 5
Transportation Information Center Low Low Moderate Class 1



In order to participate in this service package, each information flow triple should meet or exceed the following security levels.

Information Flow Security
Source Destination Information Flow Confidentiality Integrity Availability
Basis Basis Basis
Location and Time Data Source Transit Vehicle OBE location and time Moderate High High
While time reference should be universally available, time reference coupled with vehicle location is tracking data. This flow is internal to a vehicle, but should probably be encrypted to discourage hacking and snooping on the vehicle bus. Thus MODERATE. Location and time data is the basis for crash imminent safety and a host of other applications. Corruption of this flow could lead directly to a vehicle accident. If this information is not available, crash imminent safety applications depending on this information will not function properly.
Transit Management Center Traffic Management Center transit probe data Low Moderate Low
As this is aggregate information that will be used for a public information product, there is little reason to conceal it. This will eventually drive decisions made by travelers, so it does deserve some protection. If modified or corrupted, may lead to decisions wasting time and money. There are many sources of traffic data, it is unlikely that this is the only one. Loss of this flow may degrade overall travel time quality (unclear, as transit travel times are notoriously different from passenger vehicle travel times), it would not eliminate that metric and would have a widespread but minor effect.
Transit Management Center Transit Operations Personnel transit operations status Moderate High High
Backoffice operations flows should have minimal protection from casual viewing, as otherwise imposters could gain illicit control or information that should not be generally available. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system.
Transit Management Center Transportation Information Center transit probe data Low Moderate Low
As this is aggregate information that will be used for a public information product, there is little reason to conceal it. This will eventually drive decisions made by travelers, so it does deserve some protection. If modified or corrupted, may lead to decisions wasting time and money. There are many sources of traffic data, it is unlikely that this is the only one. Loss of this flow may degrade overall travel time quality (unclear, as transit travel times are notoriously different from passenger vehicle travel times), it would not eliminate that metric and would have a widespread but minor effect.
Transit Management Center Transportation Information Center transit schedule adherence information Low Moderate Moderate
Eventually intended for public consumption, so no need to obfuscate. While accuracy of this data is important for decision making purposes, applications should be able to function without it. Thus MODERATE generally. While accuracy of this data is important for decision making purposes, applications should be able to cfunction without it. Thus MODERATE generally.
Transit Operations Personnel Transit Management Center transit operations personnel input Moderate High High
Backoffice operations flows should have minimal protection from casual viewing, as otherwise imposters could gain illicit control or information that should not be generally available. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system. Backoffice operations flows should generally be correct and available as these are the primary interface between operators and system.
Transit Vehicle OBE Transit Management Center transit vehicle location data Moderate Moderate Moderate
While internal, contains identification, passenger load and routing data that if observed could be used by an attacker to identify targets. Applications relying on this data will not function properly if the data is incorrect, so it must be protected commensurate to the value of the application. Applications relying on this data will not function properly if the data is incorrect, so it must be protected commensurate to the value of the application. Location data is dynamic, so probably needs to be updated frequently.
Transit Vehicle OBE Transit Management Center transit vehicle schedule performance Low Moderate Low
This information is directly observable, and in most instances it is made publically available. This information may be used to influence the decision about whether or not to make a traffic control priority request on behalf of the transit vehicle. If it is incorrect it may cause the transit management center to send out incorrect traffic control priority requests, which may delay traffic. There should not be any catastrophic failures caused if this data is occasionally missing.

Standards

Currently, there are no standards associated with the physical objects in this service package. For standards related to interfaces, see the specific information flow triple pages.