A system stakeholder is an individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system. Concerns are those interests which pertain to the system's development, its operation or any other aspects that are critical or otherwise important to one or more stakeholders (see ISO 42010-2011).

The Concept of Operations for the Core System defined three types of Users: Mobile, Field and Center. This differentiation was perceived to be helpful in the context of the Core because the services it provides vary depending on the user. This differentiation is maintained in ARC-IT, due to the significant differences in operations experienced by mobile and non-mobile, and center vs. field users.

Differentiation was considered for Acquirers, Maintainers, Developers and Managers. There are certainly differences in how an entity might procure a mobile device vs. a backoffice device. That said, these stakeholders share the same concerns across all viewpoints, and differentiation would only serve to overly complicate the architectural analysis. Consequently no distinction is made between Mobile, Field and Center Acquirers, Developers or any other stakeholder class.

Many stakeholders take roles within ITS, which are modeled in the Enterprise View.

Stakeholder Description
Users The User stakeholder is the operator of the Mobile, Field, or Center device or system. Owing to the significant logistical differences between these three types of devices and systems, their associated stakeholders are identified individually.
Mobile User The Mobile User operates a personal information device (e.g. smart phone) or operates or rides in a vehicle that participates in ITS. Mobile Users include automobile, bus, truck, construction and emergency vehicle drivers and passengers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians.
Field User The Field User owns, operates and/or maintains the intelligent infrastructure distributed near or along the transportation network which performs surveillance, information provision, local transactions, and control functions.
Center User The Center User owns, operates, and/or maintains back office systems that provide ITS services. Center User stakeholders include public and commercial transportation, transit and fleet managers, vehicle and device manufacturers (that want operational diagnostic information), information service providers, emissions, commercial vehicle and other regulatory managers, toll administrators, maintenance and construction operators, public safety, insurance and transportation data aggregators.

The acquirer is the entity that procures a device that participates in ITS.

Examples of public entities that may assume the Acquirer role include state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), transit agencies, commercial vehicle administration agencies, or regional coordination entities that include elements of multiple such agencies. Examples of private entities that may assume the Acquirer role include private individuals (e.g., vehicle owner, mobile device owner), commercial fleet management companies, vehicle manufacturers or information service providers (e.g., traveler information).


The Maintainer is the entity that ensures continuous device or application operation by ensuring the availability of resources including power, environmental control, hardware, software patches and upgrades required for devices and applications to operate properly.

For Center and Field systems, the Maintainer role will often be funded by the same entity that serves as the Manager. The Maintainer may be part of the same agency as the Manager, or it may be contracted to a separate entity under control of the Manager. For Mobile components, the Maintainer stakeholder is less predictable: it may be the owner or operator of the device, or it may be a third party.


The Manager is responsible for planning the deployment and managing ITS operations. The Manager does not interact directly with ITS. Changes that require operational modification (to enforce policies imposed by the Policy Setter for example) are determined by the Manager, but depending on scope and required functionality are implemented by the Developer, Maintainer, Operator or User.

The Manager role will be part of an agency or it may be contracted to a separate entity under control of an agency.

Tester The Tester is responsible for verifying that devices and applications meet their specifications, and in particular that the interfaces they implement conform to the standards specified for those interfaces.
Policy-Setter The Policy-Setter determines policies that affect CVE component and application deployment, implementation or operations. This could be a local entity such as a DoT, a regional body or a federal entity such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
Application Developer The Application Developer creates applications that provide ITS services.
Device Developer The Device Developer creates devices and systems (Mobile, Field and Center) that will interact through applications to provide services of value to Mobile, Center and Field Users.
Service Provider The Service Provider provides a service that is used by the Mobile, Field and Center Users to access or deliver other services. Examples of Service Providers are RSE owner/operators, cellular network providers, and security providers such as the operator of a certificate authority.
Standards Development Organization The Standards Development Organization (SDO) develops and maintains the standards used to define interfaces, provide functionality, cybersecurity or any other aspect of ITS that should be heavily re-used and/or requires widespread interoperability.
Transportation Planner Transportation planners analyze and plan for improvement of the transportation system, primarily in the form of roadway modification, construction and enhancement using ITS technologies.
Enforcement Enforcement entities identify users that are in violation of regulations. For ITS, this includes those entities that enforce traffic regulations, road usage and emissions.
End-of-Lifecycle Manager Entities involved in disposal, recycling and recovery activities are focused on what happens to devices when those devices are no longer being used.